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EGC-BIO-001a Charles Journal 1873 (Original)

Preface

In 1873, twenty eight years after arriving in America, Charles W. Sutcliffe journeyed back to England to visit the family that remained, including siblings, nieces, nephews, in-laws and sundry friends and old neighbors. During the journey Charles kept a meticulous diary, chock full of names and other genealogical information. Though the diary was well-known amongst the family in the generation or two following Charles, and was apparently consulted by Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe in her Tribute, the last known reference to it comes from a 1931 letter; after that it disappeared for nearly a century.

Some years ago, while I was sorting through the Edna G. Culver Family Papers, the diary was rediscovered — or a copy of it anyway, apparently executed in Charles' own hand. While of inestimable value in its own right, the copy was defective in two major respects: first, it was not the original; and secondly, it was incomplete, the pages containing the final six weeks of the journey having been lost. Nevertheless, it formed the basis of the first edition of The Journey Home.

Recently, however, the original journal has resurfaced, emerging from an old and previously uncatalogued box of the EGC Papers. Aside from the mere fact of its rediscovery, of greatest interest is the recovery of the missing final weeks of the journal. Here at last we witness the events surrounding the marriage of Mary Ann and Thomas which, contrary to previous speculations, was opposed by nearly all, including Charles himself, and caused a rupturing of relations between Charles and his brother. To the wedding itself Charles devotes but a single, distanced sentence, and save for a single elliptical comment none of the principals are mentioned again.

Of additional interest are the many differences between the original and the transcript, largely consisting of corrections, elaborations and clarifications of the original text. Where significant, these alterations have been footnoted.

The original diary has engendered months of additional research and study, culminating in this second edition which now presents the complete text of the original journal. There will undoubtedly be further hidden jewels discovered in future, but presented here at last, after a century's absence, is the complete, original text of Charles' diary.

Nathanael Culver
November, 2017

Introduction

Charles Wolstenholme Sutcliffe was born, in 1820, the son of a Leeds millworker, at the height of the textile boom that was to fundamentally transform Leeds and its environs during the course of the nineteenth century. As a typical child of a working class Leeds family in the early nineteenth century, it is likely that by the age of nine or ten, Charles was already employed in one of the many textile mills in and around Leeds[1]. Indeed, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe[2] tells us he was at one time employed to wipe down the engines his father maintained.

Then one day, in the early '40s, with English society wallowing in the unease inflicted by the dawn of the industrial revolution, he heard the siren call of America, a land of promise and plenty and a future dictated only by his own hand. Over the strenuous objections of his family, in 1844 he signed on with the British Temperance Emigration Society[3], one of many such organizations feeding the wildfire of emigration sweeping the British Isles, and, less than a year later[4] boarded the SS Petersburg[5] for America and his new home in Wisconsin[6].

But in the 1840s, Wisconsin was wilderness territory, in every sense a world away from the urban factory life to which Charles was accustomed. Charles found primitive farm life in Wisconsin immeasurably harder that he had imagined, and, so Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe tells us[7], spent many nights on his rough-hewn bed crying himself to sleep in loneliness and separation from all that he had known. But he persevered. Within two years of his arrival he was married, and then the children came, until Wisconsin had become home indeed. His homestead became a favored spot for cricket matches, of which the Dover community was very fond[8]. He was elected Justice of the Peace. And he eventually prospered sufficiently to purchase additional properties.

And then at last, twenty eight years after landing in Boston, Charles returned to England to visit the family he had left behind. From July through September, 1873, Charles sojourned in and around Leeds with those of his family that remained and this journal, rich in genealogical information and Charles' impressions of the changes the years had wrought on the world of his youth, preserves the details of that visit.

The Manuscript

Charles' journal was well-known within the family in the generation or so after Charles' passing. It is mentioned in at least one letter, and Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe seems to have drawn on it in compiling her biography of Charles in 1932. All mention of it, however, ceases after 1931[ 9], and the journal itself seemed to have disappeared.

In 2004, while on a visit to Wisconsin, I digitized a large portion of my grandmother's papers, she being a granddaughter of Charles through his daughter Henrietta. Amongst those digitized papers I discovered a transcript of the journal, seemingly written in Charles' own hand. The transcript was a copy, not the original, and in any case was incomplete, breaking off abruptly on 2 September, some six weeks before Charles' return to Mazomanie. Nevertheless, it provided a wealth of genealogical information, and I spent a good deal of the next decade pouring over it. The results of that research were published in the first edition of this book.

Then earlier this year, while again on a visit to Wisconsin, having occasion to look through her papers, I discovered a portion which had been overlooked previously, and within that collection found the original journal, complete and well-preserved. This original text, then, forms the basis of this new edition of The Journey Home. Of greatest interest, of course, is this missing portion of the journal, comprising the dates of 2 September through 18 October, when Charles arrives at last, sound but exhausted, at his Wisconsin homestead and his family’s embrace. In addition, a comparison with the copy discovers many expansions, corrections and clarifications of the original entries. Where significant, these are now noted in footnotes throughout.

And at last the details surrounding the marriage of Thomas Hodkinson with Charles’ niece Mary Ann are revealed, and my previous speculations of a pre-arranged affair put to lie. In fact, Charles himself was opposed to the affair, and endured a great deal of grief and a rupturing of family ties in the result.

Passenger lists for the SS Olympia show Charles, Thomas Hodkinson, Mary Ann and her two children, arriving at New York on 16 October 1873; and indeed, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe's write-up[10] states that Charles left Liverpool on 30 September.

Throughout the journal, Charles exhibits a disdain for punctuation matched only at times by an equal fondness for creative spelling. Fortunately, Charles’ handwriting is generally clear, with legibility only occasionally becoming a problem. In the transcription presented here I have taken the liberty of inserting some punctuation and occasionally amending spellings in an attempt to somewhat smooth out the reading. Otherwise, I have attempted to present the text as is.


Travels from America to England

  Sunday morning whent to Saboth school[11] Talked a little to the scholars and bid them adiew for a little while promising to be with them again if spared Dined with Saml & Martha Batty[12] whent to Church afternoon heard Bro T Hodkinson last [?] for a little while he with me being going a voiage to England. Commenced raining heavy at night, which was greatly needed Crops wer suffering for the want of it verry hot sutery wther

  plenty of rain now for a little while a verry sultery hot day looks like more rain took Robt to Town Mother and me did whent to Black Earth and Visited Marshall Tinley's son[13] perevious to going to England got home at night all well

  verry warm & sultery wether to hot to do anything had our place took by the Artist from Mazomanie today whent to See Thos Hodkinson at night Cows did not come home tonight

  Boys hoeing Corn plenty of Potatoe Bugs and lots of young Chintze Bugs, whent to Visite John Gorsts afternoon prevesous to going to England. Came on Thunder & ran Could not get home till 6 oclock in the morning a verry bad night for lightening and pitch darkness verry hot day

  I verry sleepy today Boys in corn hoeing John Tilton Borrowed horse Rake. John[14] whent to work for him a little while Thos Hodkinson & Marey John Gorst & wife & me and Wife[15] whent to see Bro Ray previous to leaveing England got hom at night all well a verry hot & sultery day

  This mornig rain and thunder and lightening George[16] whent to town packing up for me going to England

  Started this morning on the Cars[17] for Chicago on the way for England God Bless me and the Deare ones I leave behind had a pleasant passage to Chicago got in about 7 oclock PM found Mrs Borwells[18] Stayed all night

  Thunder and rain this morning got up 1/2 past 6 took a wak a walk to the river before Breakfast whent round till dinner time saw John Binks[19] at noon whent to the largest inn[20] in chicago whent to the Episcopalian Saboth school afternoon in the Evening whent to the M E Church[21][22] then then whent home to Bed Mr Howerd[23] & James Borwell and Hodkinson[24] with us

  a fine morning whent around town till ½ past 10 Thomas and me and Jack the little Englishman[25] got to Borwells tired Saw great Sights Teams and men on a Lump[?] hardly room to get about Some splended Buldings took Cars at 5 oclock Started to detroit then took the rong Cars to Niagra falls had to pay 5 50 [?]try for our Blunder before Reaching Niagra falls there was a smash up so we had to Back out to get the Cars and debris from the Track which threw us behind time all the way to New York we again took our own Cars in the evening and kept them till we Landed the Track Being Crowded with Trains on Both sides of us which made it verry dangerous in the night

  Started to sail 12 oclock noon got dinner 2 oclock hoisted sail ever so many pukeing Woman moastly never as so ungry before dinner had nothing to eat since last night on the cars we had quiet a job with the land sharks but we come of Best they wher determined to shave us but they did not do it a good many sick ringing the Bell or Blowing the wistle every few minutes so thick is thee fog [illeg]

  8 oclock on the Banks[26] had a good nights sleep My head verry dizzy this morning, the wind Blowing prety freeley from South we are going 8 or 9 nots per hower a good many sick Wisteling every few minutes so thick is the fog we are going along nicely Thos in his bed quiet a while today no sun shine verry cold damp a vessell passed quiet near us in the fog

  a Beautifull morning the fog lifted from the sea flags flying from the mast 2 guns fired[27] warm the sun Shines the Vessel moveing Mereally along a fine warm day hoisted the flags of Eng Scotland America &cc fired 2 guns Saw a Vessel going to America had one of the Best dinners ever saw at noon 450 from Sandy hook 2 days sail from new York a most pleasant day Sun shining all day Thomas & me verry well had a game[28] this afternoon may the smile of Providance watch over us and Ours

  8 oclock on the Banks of New found land had a good night Sleep My head verry dizzy this morning the vessel going good the wind Blowing pretty good a Side Wind the Vessel pitching some[29]

  Sunday Morning Booth of us verry sick with dirohea had servise on deck in the morning 10 oclock Sailed Cince noon yesterd 245 knots a good deal of Sickness on Board[31] a small vessel whent by us afternoon and 2 Whales nothing to Eat today Servise in the Saloon at night

  On Bord Europa[30] 4 oclock my mate Thomas verry sick pukeing and purgin got up and got him some Brandy had a verry pleasant Passage so far going about 10 nots per hower I have a little of the Diarohea and sickness at the stomach this Morning 12 oclock 760 miles from Sandy hook 242 knots cince yesterday a good many sick with diarhaea Bro Hodkinson out again going 10 knots per hower a fine time up to now

  a fair wind rained some in the morning verry cold on the Banks of Newfoundland had some medisin from the doctor today feels a little Better the 3 day and have Eat nothing[32] 235 Cince yesterday Thos & me verry poorley heavy fog

  a verry cold forenoon nearly a head Wind a good deal of Sickness on Board I am vary weak 230 Nots cince yesterday and verry cold a head wind afternoon no saill up

  205 knots cince noon yesterday and a head wind verry cold no sun Shine a little Better in health Boath of us

  got up this morning the deck covered with roaps the sails all up a Side wind sending us along a little faster verry Cold have Eat verry little cince the 4th July which makes us feel verry week and impatioent to be accross to Glasgow 223 Not cince noon yesterday hoisted all sail about noon and we are going along verry good Bucking and pitching saw a Steamer & 2 Wales today 10 Oclock Night Bedtime

  the wind still in our favour Sailed 245 Nots cince noon yesterday verry Cold our health is pretty well today and we are feeling to Enjoy our Passage but impatient fo to be at our journey's end[33] 2010 miles from New york whent to Bed with a heavy Breeze a little in our favour pitching the Vessell Merrially but fearfully rather some verry Cold

  this morning same as last night Run cince noon yesterday 250 Nots the wind is still Blowing pretty hard from the North a Vessell just gon By the Olympia[34] from Glasgow the waves washing the deck pretty windy hard to stand on deck 11 oclock night a little Rain the Wind Blowing not quiet so hard must now Say my Prayers and go to Bed May heaven smile on us & all on Board this Night Amen and those I have left at home

  7 oclock this morning took all the sail in a head wind sun Shines a little but Cold feel pretty well with a greatfull heart to God for His preserving care towards me the skye looks a little squalmish 248 Knots cince noon yesterday Porpoises Showing themselves first time today a verry find day the sea smooth and calm at Noon people Laying around on deck a Sermon by a unitarian Spent a verry pleasant Saboth day

  rained in the morning a vessel passed in ½ past 11 [illeg] morning[35] Land in View Londonderry north part o Ireland 221 Knots cince noon yesterday all the [illeg] sail is tied up at noon today ready to enter harbour Landed passengers at Movil[36] 9 Oclock PM ofor Londonderry Telegraph dispatch of the loss of the City of Washington[37] Mailed a Letter for home passed many dangerous Rocks some verry near say about 200 yards from us

  1/2 past 2 AM[?] Beautiful but dangerous Seens arounds in the form of Rocks Islands and so on we are 70 miles from Glasgow at 4 AM we passed a rather sleepless night on Account of the dangers about 50 fishings Boats all in View now as smooth sea and little wind Cast anchor at Greenock awaiting the Tide at 10 oclock AM after passing some of the most awful and grand seen I ever saw Som of the Passengers here took rails to Glasgow Exise officers on Board Seized some Tobacco and Cigars hunting[?] arround pretty sharp [illeg] Vessels of all Sizes running up and down the Port of Grenock. Landed in Glasgow 5 oclock PM Recd a Telegram from Nephew Dean Sutcliffe to go by Cars to Liverpool Sent him a answer yes Took our Valeses to the Station found lodging went to bed

  paid on shilling for our lodgins got up whent arround Glassgow for about 3 howers looking around seeing the sights and hunting for a Breakfast 4 of us had a Cup of Coffe each Bread & Butter for One Shilling then changed our Order into Gold[38] started on a hurry[?] to the dipo got our Ticketts and come to Liverpool on a quick train Saw Beautiful Seens Landed at Liverpool found Nepiews Dean Sutcliffe & Thomas Camm[39] waiting for me on the Platform kew them by the White amkershive whent with them to Crew where Dean lives by Rail got home about 9 Oclock had a Welcom Reception with my Nephiews and Neices whent to Bed rather Tired and in a mending condition

  Nephews Dean Sutcliffe & Robert had waiting on me at the Station 3 or 4 days Robert took verry Sick there and had to Go home just before I got to Liverpool then Nephew Thomas Camm came to Dean to help to look out for me this morning whent to See Nephiew Robert he was verry poorley in his Bowels the 3 of us[40] whent arround Town till noon then came home to dinner to Deans. Mary Ann Camm my Neice his[41] Deans Wife My health appears to be mending and I am verry Welcome with all my Relations seen yet afer dinner whent around town with Dean & Robt

  This Morning my Neice Mary Ann[42] and me took Cars to Congleton[43] to Visite Thos Camm and Wife[44] and from thence to Robet Camm and family[45] took Robert by surprise he was greatly affected when it was told him at the dinner table I was his Uncle from America Never did I see More honest Simple Truthfull and agreable people the Wether is verry Cold to me and verry dull and misseling nearly evry day we spent a verry agreable day and came home on the cars as we whent in the morning we passed a smash up one man killed and another nearly Thomas & Robert and me whent and got a Glass of Bear and then whent home to Bed they say I look Better than I did when I come I feel better

  got up this Morning well Nephiews[46] at Work I whent with my Neice Maria[47] to Markett this forenoon there is some Larg Iornworks[48] Works in Crew it would be a fine sigh for our Boys to see Left Crewe at noon with Nephiew Robert at noon for Leeds he came with me to take care of me got to Leeds about 5 Oclock afternoon as me where I would go I told him to the nearest place whent to Our Williams[49] we whent to our Williams in Armley[50] I whent to the door asked if Wm Sutcliffe Lived there he said yes I asked him if he did not kow me he said no I looked him hard in the face a ling time and he at me I said I know thee with that he knew me[51] we whent after that to our Johns all of us and found Mary Ann[52] at home but our John and Ada[53] gon to our Williams to see about me wether I had come or no we waited there till they came back Mary Ann knew me right off But I did not know our John not a bit he his got so Old[54] whent to our Williams at night after talking awhile and a little Music

  Sunday morning got up well whent with Robert[55] to the depo to go home again whent Back to dinner. whilst Sat at dinner in comes our Mary[56] where is he she says gives me a kiss then Took her Things off a sat down to dinner. Befor that Our Susey[57] had com and our[58] John and Ada[59] so we where all[60] escept our Maria[61] togather I whent to see our Henry's Wife[62] after noon she is getting gray Spent all the day till night[63] when we all whent to the depo and Each left for their homes Satisfied we had seen one annother once more a hot day for Old England

  Whent this morning with our William to his work[64] and whent into the Engine house[65] to our John then whent up into his[66] house and wrote a Letter to home to America then whent home at night with Our Wm[67]

  This morning Said[68] in Bed till after our Wm whent to work whent around a little as far as I dare for being lost[69] whent to See our Henrys wife afternoon in the Evening whent to See Frank Nichols[70] Father One of Henrys daughters[71] whent with me Saw some of the Prisoners Come out of Armley jail[72] and they[73] called at Eli Farrars to get something to drink[74]

  This morning Ely Farrar and me started for Horsforth on the street cars to Kirkstall Saw the Old Abby[75] got to our Suseys Before dinner Time a great many Changes[76] many people know me whome I have forgot and cannot call to mind This morning what they call a heavy Thunderstorm about 6 Oclock came on and killed Several Cattle and one man and hurt a Woman and did a good deal of damage and the people all arround Seemed terrified whilst it Lasted whent with Thos Shaw[77] a fishing to Pool whent on the cars through Bramhope Tunnel[78] got no fish Cam home by the Cars at night

  This morning whent to see My Father & Mothers grave[79] in Addle Church[80] yard Nephiew Thomas Shaw whent with me. got home to dinner to our Suseys, Our Maria Came in before dinner from Leeds Laid down afternoon awhile then got up had tea and whent down Horsforth saw the Clock our Henry[81] made[82] and a Great many people new me that I did not know Cousin or[83] Nephiew Robert Shaw whent with me our Maria Brot me a letter from our Johns from America from ou Robt[84] which was good news from home to me 212 Steps to the top of the Tower[85]

  at our Suseys and our Maria this morning got up 1/2 past 4 whent with Robert Sutcliffe our Susey Son to see some gardens which he his tending to which gardens where verry pretty Rained nearly all day a little Came to Our Williams with Our Maria at night on the Cars got home all well

  this morning whent with our Mary (our Wms Wife) and Maria[87] into Vickers Croft[88] and then they whent home again and I came forward to our Johns the streets of Leeds are about the same as Chicago for people Tram ways Carriages & cc[89] hard work to walk along found our John at his Engine at work whent up to his house and Eat dinner with Our Johns daughters[90]. John W[91] Came hom at night and staid a few howers and then whent home at night to attend[?] Sunday School[92] we had music and taking till Bed time then whent to Bed

  This morning whent to the Old Methodist Church Rich hill[93] heard a beautifull dicoures on predestination (Explanation given) the Jews where the Chosen children of God) and the gentiles where predestinated to become the same in the Evening whent to the Old Established Church Sant Edmunds, and was verry well Satisfied and Encouraged to go on my way trusting in God Law[?] Rained some today I hear our Maria is not well at our Williams cince I left he yesterday if no better on the 28 I will go see her

  at our Johns Started after Breakfast to have a walk Ada whent to her School[94] and our John to work whent with a friend of our Johns called Mr. Rodgers to the Town Hall[95] whent into many places in it Court Rooms and so on and up to the Top of the Spire was in the Clock room when it struck 3 which made my flesh crepe on my Bones a grand view of Leeds from the Top Sat me down in 2 or 3 of the Royal Chairs[96] which Prince Abert & Prince Alfred sat in and was in all of the principal Rooms with many other Sights[97] which Room will not permit me to Record I thought it would kill me before I got up the steps of the Town hall got to our Johns about 5 Oclock verry Tired, a fine day 212 steps to the top of the Tower of Leeds Town hall

  at our Johns got up had Breakfast took our Johns to mill Stayed with him awile then whent up to top mill to our William Stayed till noon came up to dinner had a little nap or sleep then whent to Armley to see our Maria she being verry Sick found her a little Better got tea and Came Back again to our Johns found two letters waiting for me from home one from John Gorst and the Other from my deare Wife which was good news from home to me I red them Boath to our John and Mary Ann his Daughter had Supper and whent to Bed with a greatful heart to God for his goodness to me

  after Breakfast[98] whent down to Mill to see our John. Started to New Wortley got dinner with Eli Farrer and Betty[99] looked in to see our Maria afternoon at our Williams then started to Armley[100] found Uncle Sam[101] and Wife home the 2 Boys[102], or rather young men came in after Tea of course none of them new me but Sam[103] is just like Father Blakey[104], staid till night and took cars for our Johns uncle Sam Blakey is doing a good Buisness[105] Could not find no one that remembered much abut My Wife a many of them dead

  This morning I thought to write home but did not I spent all day Running arround Leeds in various places Could not find Sam Binks[106] no where

  writing home this forenoon Started to find Sam Binks found just on the point of giveing him up Charlotte about as usual Sam no work took tea with them Sam whent with me to armley and New Wortley whent accross the Bridge where there used to be a Boat Whent to see how our Maria was getting on[107] then walked about to our Johns found Ada come from school and all of them home

  wrote a little more after Breakfast to home. Then whent to see our Maria on the cars got hom took dinner at our Johns. had a Lunch of Rhubarb Pye and a glass of Ale at our Williams. finished my letters for home came down to the mill to our John 3 oclock PM whent into town with our John to see the Judge[108] come in to the Assises[109] did not see him Our Wm came in to the Lodge and we all met together in the Lodge house Bot a pair of New Glasses, whent with them arround saw a great many people then came home with our John and our Wm whent home

  Sunday the Church Bells Ringing Our John verry poorly I am affraid of him poor Brother we whent to the Old Church[110] this Morning to see the Judge[111] he came in town the assise come on tomorrow Many people watching[112] I did not feel verry well this afternoon nor ou John we stayed in door got a Letter from Bro Hodkinson this afternoon Mary Ann[113] and went to the Simetary at Birmontofts our John has 2 Wifes Laid[114] there Saw som grand Building on the road and a Larg place to Bury the dead a great many Tombstones and some verry Expensive Cheifly Granite [illeg] houses I dont know where all the people Come from after Tea we spent the Evening with Singing and playing Ada with the Organ and our John with his Basse whent to bed our John Verry poorley and I not so verry well

  raining this morning whent a little arround Leeds to day by my self got lost many times but come out all right at last rained a little nearly all day

  a fine morning I supose for here, but I think Cold Our John verry sick but at work he has not been fit for work since I came had to leave work at noon to sick to stand it whent to see a doctor about my eyes, said he could clear them and could do them good Whent at night with with John W and Ada to the Town hall to hear an Entertainment on the Organ the largest Organ in England but one the smallest pipe about like a small straw and the largest pipe 32 feet long and stops

  Looks like rain this morning did some forenoone Left Leeds with John William for Harrowgate Agricultaral fair ¼ past 10 AM Saw a Kerby Reaper there and several Other Machines but not Americans all their Machines are to heavy hay rakes farm Mills Carts Buggys &cc all are to big and heavy for out West the [illeg] are as large as 3 of some of ours and the Show Stock of Cattle that is Bulls & Cows are about in the same proportion as horse there was a fine Show of Hogs and Sheep and a Traction Engine for Plowing or Running up and down the streets Steam Engines on Weels at work running Clover Thrashers and Stone Breakers &c Harrowgate was Crowded with people one Shilling Entrance into the fair 2nd day ½ a Crown first day. came home Tired 5 PM 1 6 fare there & Back Saw a Printing press at Work

  Our John verry poorley in Bed a dul Morning whent to our Wms this morning. Took a little Opening Medisin[115] at night I did not feel verry well today has been what they Call a Warm day but with you it would be called a nice Cool day

  this morning had to rise rather Early on account of the Medecin I took last night[116] a fine morning the sun shines this morning rather more than usual afternoon whent to see the foundation Stone laid of a Day School[117] the stone was laid by Sir Andrew Fairburn Night[118] the Cost of it Estimated at 12000 Pounds. then whent through Armley Jail[119] and then took Tea with Martha One of our Suseys Daughters[120] then whent to see Charlotte Binks[121], to see if Thomas had got to Leeds yet herd nothing of him Came home to Our Williams to sleep had a pain in my Stomach and had to fetch my Tea Back again[122][123]

  a fine morning had a Shower of rain before Breakfast took a light Breakfast and took the rail for Bradford or Maningham found Mr Nichouls and 3 or 4 of my old Shop mates of Early life all if wich where verry glad to see me and was heartily welcomed Mr & Mrs Nichols &[124] they where to me like a Father & Mother had Dinner with them & Slept with them I have not been so well this 3 or 4 days Started from our Williams this morning David Farrer[125] I took Tea with them and then went with him into Bradford and found Rawbothams[126] and left them the corn and tidey[127] and promised to See them in the Morning Saw the Town hall[128] a fine Building all the Kings and Queens & Conquarers of England are put in the walls outside they Cost 70lb a piece making

  This morning was fine but cold took Breakfast Mr Henry Nichols and wife then whent down to Tim Hellewells and David Farrer and we all whent to Roboths[129] and waited some time till they got ready to Start to See uncle James[130] up on the farm Aunt and one of the Boys took the Mule and Trap so we had a good ride for the first time in England in that kind of a thing found him home Staid till night and came home to H Nichols got supper and first prayers and whent to bed sleepy whent to no place of Worship this day I Begun to think today about comming home I was so Cold and such littles fires kept on account of the dearness of Cole I cannot warm me same as at home.

  at Henry Nicholes this morning Maningham[131] a fine morning but no sunshine and Cold to me Left at noon for Salt Aire[132] to See Nicholson Son and see Saltair whent into Shipby Churchyard saw a fine grave stone which cost 600 pound 8 angels Carved in Rock whent around Saltaire a verry nice place it is Bulded on about 50 or 60 acres of ground 44 holmes[133] houses which is a Credit to the [illeg] 2 or 3 Chapels or Churches a mechanic Institute 820 houses 11000 pound Rent a year and other noted places which Cannot think off But the man Titus Salt he is a good man and a Benefactor of the community came home at night to Mr Nicholes and stayed all night with them Misley[134] Rain afternoon

  a fine morning started to see Rowbothams today whent arround some with Thomas[135] whent into the Town hall and annother Large Building Uncle John up at the farm so I did not See him today I left for Leeds after Tea with a promise to see them again before I left for home got home to Our John to supper Our John a great deal better in health mine not so good but I think will be before long

  Started the day at our John with writing to home till dinner time Then Started to Samll Binks to See if Thos Hodkinson had he heard of found him there and we whent arround some with Samll till night and we parted Each for home highly Thankful to See Thomas again took Supper and whent to bed at our Williams

  had a rather restless night pain in the Stomach got up[136] when to Vickers Croft with our William[137] Before Breakfast got Breakfast then whent to See Bro Hodkinson we whent in town Leeds till noon, and came to our Wms to dinner all 3 of us then whent to Our Herys and Uncle Sams Came home at Night to our Wms.[138] Aunt Blakey[139] did not ask us to sit down so we left and took tea at Franks Fathers Nichols[140]

  This morning fine sprinkled a little Thos & me whent to see Kirkstall Abby[141] with Sam Binks dined with Charlotte[142] then whent through Vickers Croft and round town in Central Markett Corn Exchange then whent to our Johns staid all night

  This morning Thomas and me whent arround some after noon our John Mary Ann Ada and his daughters Thomas[143] and whent to Roudhay Park[144] it Rained verry heavy whilst we where there[145] we had a Sail around the Pond Our John took Cold got home verry Cold at night

  this morning our John in Bed poorly Thomas and me whent in the morning to Oxford Chappel[146] then whent to Sam Binkses to dinner afternoon whent to the same Chappel to a Love feast[147] we two American Brothers was called to speak Thomas spoke[148] there was a good meeting my mind is on my dear home whent to our Johns for tea & then whent to the parish Church in the Evening Mary Ann & Ada with us then whent home our John was up and Being f[illeg]ing up his fire at the Mill to keep it in[149]

  this morning we Boath started from ou Johns Called at the Mill to See our Wm & John then Thos Started for London and I for horsforth took Tramway to Kirkstall and walked[150] to our Suseys found them all well with their Lumps of Beef Cooked for the feast[151] when I got there there had been 3 or 4 from Bradford[152] to see me on Sunday but had gon Back again John or rather Robert[153] & me whent to see the Athletic sports after noon Came on Rain and Rained all day Came home to Roberts took Tea with them and Slept at our Suseys

  raining this morning when I got up took a walk through Horsforth our Susey midling Considering took Breakfast with our Susey afternoon whent to See Crickett playing and the Athletics took dinner at our Suseys Rained a little afternoon Spent the Evening with our Susey. Tired for the day anciously looking for a letter from home

  this morning left Horsforth for Leeds got to our Johns dinnertime Received a letter from home and a Newspaper, which did me good to hear from my family I got my Boots Mended Cost 4 Shillings I am heartily welcom here and at home if at home any where Rainey now and then through the day got a letter from Glasgow and one from Bro Hodkinson from London

  Started this morning for Birstall found Uncle John Day[154] he was glad to see me we whent into the Church yard we saw Aunt Fannys grave[155] Birstal Feast[156] just commenced rained at Night it has rained every day since last Saturday poor harvest wether Saw Wm Rhodes Joshua Roads Brother[157] Uncle day took me to his house got measured for a Suit of Clothes[158] at Uncle John Slept with them[159] this night Uncle John & Wife did all they could to make me comfortable.

  Dreamed of home and my dear Wife, found myselfe in Bed dissapointed a rainy a little when I got up took Breakfast then Uncle John showed me the House of Cousin James &c Sam[160] spent the day with them came home to Uncles to sleep, a man killed this day on the feast ground with his Wagon Running over him drizzley on and of all day Uncle day and Cousins would like to see Sarah Ann and wishes to be remembered to her

  this morning fine and pleasant whent to look round the Town of Birstal and the fair ground with Uncle day got my Beart Cut at Cousin Sam took dinner at Uncles and made a start for ou Johns in Leeds found Thomas Back from London. we then whent to a Consert in the Town Hall then whent home to Bed rained a little whilst going home

  a fine morning we whent to the Church[161] this morning near our Johns our John whent to clean one of the Boilers out took him till noon then Thos & me started to Samll Binks and me to our Wms they thought I was lost I had been away so long got Tea with them then Whent to Brunswich Chappe[162] herd an Exclent Sermon Text 18 Chapter Mathew 2nd & 3rd verse Thomas & Mary Ann Our Johns daughter was there I did not see them. I came home to Our Wms took Supper & whent to Bed thanful to God for His preserving care over me and mine

  there had quiet a rain in the night poor harvest wether a dull morning looks like more Rain did rains some Stayed at our Wms and wrote till noon John Wm Bagot and Waite[163] (our Mary daughters husband) came to see me John from Durham and the other from Halifax we all met in Leeds at night Thomas Our Wm & John with us had a glass and whent home to Each of our Respective place[164] I whent to Our Wms the rest to our Johns

  More rain in the night Halifax got up in the morning Richard Hill whent with us one day arround Town we whent[175] into Wheatly and around a Farm house[176] there Belonging to the family or Connections Came on a heavy rain & thunder whilst there Came Back to Hills and staid all night

  Sent a letter to Home today heavy Rain in the night a good deal of grain to cut arround here Started from our Johns with Thomas to S Binks and then took the cars with Thomas fare 1s 4d[169] got to a Relations of Mr Copley[170]. Mr Copleys Sister and was verry kindly Received and Saw Several of the family of the Old Stock all made us welcom Staid all night with them[171] had a little more Rain on the Evening saw some places of my Childhood in Halifax Several Chapels I had been in 40 years ago whent into Sion School and through the Chappel[172] and the Peace Hall[173]. Markett Slaughter House and other places in Halifax[174]

  Rained verry heavy in the night with Thunder got up at 5 oclock and whent with our Wm to[165] Vickers Croft before Breakfast returned to Breakfast then whent to Meet Thomas and Nephiew John William[166] we took train for Horsforth with him to our Suseys Came Back at Night by train Thos & Me and J W whent home and us to our Johns[167] had to Stop on the Rail Rod about one hower the Engine Broke down near Horsforth[168]

  this morning Rainey Started for Bridgehouse and Thos to Manchester they wanted us to stay with them longer I called on the road to see an optition one of the best in the country to see if I could get a pair of glasses to walk with but could not he advised me to wash my eyes with cold water as much as possible I cam up one of the hardest hills I have traveled this day for many years South Arm of Halifax[177] got to Bridgehouse by noon took dinner at our Marys daughters[178], our Maria was here I had to get me an umberralla hear Cost 4s6d

  Started to Leads this morning our Maria walked with me to Leighcliff[179] Statin nearly[180] took the Train and got to our Johns before noon got Dinner and then whent to the Mill had a good warm Bathe[181] and I felt better from it an old Mill Mate came to Seek me John Halliwell before I got my Clothes on from the Bath had to promise to go to his house to Morrow, Sunday which I did

  This morning took Train[182] way for Kirkstall found John Hellewell[183] at home took dinner with them and Tea then took my way Back to our Johns at night rained some through the day had a long talke about our younger days when we worked to gather[184]

  this morning[185] whent to Castleford[186] 9 miles on the cars to see our Johns son[187] at the Glass Works see them makeing Bottles of all sizes Boath for England and other places in the World[188] Came Back at night tired it being Orton feast[189] our John whent with me as they had a holaday at the mill John Wm got us a permit to see arround the works he his the Engineman[190] at the works may a time have I wished myselfe home

  got Roberts[191] letter whilst at Breakfast. had been looking for it a day or two and am looking for another from home. I wish it would come I was glad to have[192] Robert's letter Started this morning for our Williams it is Orton feast so the Mill hands are playing our William whent with me from the Mill home[193]

  This day I stayed at our Wm all day afternoon our Wm's wife Mary[194] and me whent through Armley Cemetary[195]. some nice verses on the Tomb Stones and some Nice Monuments and the graves decorated with flowers growing over the Dead a fine day for a Wonder it is getting rather Cold wethr which makes me think it is Time to be comming home whent to See Samel and Charlotte Binks after Tea. I saw a notice up in the Window before I got in "This House to Let" so I knew what was going on found them prparing to leave for Chicago again on the 10th of this month[196] Charlott poor woman feels verry Bad

  this morning rain had a verry unplesant nights sleep, heart Bothered me some a great deal of griefe is my lot on account of Bro Hodkinson and our John in regard to Maryann, he our John does not whant her to go with him to America. I am blamed a good deal for it, and I am as Innocent as the child unborn I am at our Williams. Hodkinson is in Cheshire I wrote him today. I am anxiously looking for a letter from home with instructions as it is time to be preparing for going home alice our Wm daughter[197] whent with me to Buy some things today first day of preparing anything Bot a ring for my Wife a Black Satin dress 12 yds and a pair Earrings for Ettie[198] some Neadles and 6 anchercheives[199] wore near [?] pounds wrote to Hodkinson to day and Nephiew dean

  Sprinkled of Rain some through the day a little but on the Whole a fine day But getting cold wether Stayed at our Wms all the day I am anxiously looking for a letter from home and one from Hodkinson the first and last thing is now going home to my dear Home accross the Mighty Deep

  I this morning whent into Leeds found a letter from Hodkinson and one from Thos Cam, but none from my dear Home which is a great dissapointment had a Warm Bath got a little Medeum to purify the Blood

  whent to the Catholic Appostolic Church[200] this morning Stayed in doors the rest of the day till night tried to sleep a little afternoon but no sleep for me it his hard work, thoughts of home Armley feast[201] today whent through the Streets with our William at night Streets Crowded with people

  a fine morning but we can not tell how long it will be a little frost this morning wrote to our Mary and Uncle day and Aunt Rowbotham took a walk up armley to the feast thought I might see s some of Uncle Sams[202] folks by Chance but did not armley was Crowded with people & shows flying horses Velocepeeds[203] Swings and so on Cold in the Evening

  whent with our Henrys wife[204] and daughter to Bradford to see the Opening of Town Hall[205] Came on rain about 11 or 12 oclock spoiled the procedings in a great measure Illuminations &ce at night Stayed with Mr Nicholson[206] all night Thousands of people in Bradford from one End to the other the rain Spoiled many Bonnets and good clothes this day many women grumbling about theire fethers and ribbons being spoiled

  This day I spent with Uncle Nichols[207] going arround Town and other places in Maningham whent through Lister park a then we saw a great many New house going up new ones[208] all arround Sister Park then he took me to Peels Park[209] in the Evening and I saw the finest fire works I ever Saw came home through Bradford Bradford is Crowded with people and Illuminated all up and down flags flying &cc in Con junction with the opening of the Town hall Slept at Mr Nicholases.

  Started this morning from Mr Nicholes for Bradford bid them all a final adieu Mr Nichols Wife Daughter and Granddaughter, they all wished to be rembred in love to all got to Uncle Rowbothams before dinner wher glad to see me spent the day looking arround town the town crowded with folks flags flying of all Nations ours included and Illuminated all over with gass Slept with cousin Johns Rowbotham Uncles being full up

  this morning took a walk with Cousin John into town after Breakfast he Bot me a pipe and other Things for my Children &cc took dinner with Aunt Rowbotham Henry & me whent into town afternoon and I bot 2 rugs we whent into the Museum at night a fine place and fine lights Slept with Cousin Johns Cousin John wishes to be rembred in Love to all I shoke hands with Uncle John and bid him Adiew, tell Sarahann to pray for me, God Bless her please wher about his last words to me

  Got up this morning pretty well whent into Bradford with Cousin John Rowbotham Bot 4 Gards Silver paid for the 2 Pound Add then left him with the Promise to give his Love to all relations whent up to Uncle Rowbothams to dinner Staid till near 3 oclock and started on the cars for Birstal had to walk about a mile comenst[210] Raining and Rained till I got to Our Williams in new wortley heavy Got my Suite of Clothes paid for them £ 18s Bid him good Bye with Love to all got to our Wms abot 10 oclock found 3 letters from home one from Thomas and a Telegram from him a letter from my sister Mary read them all and whent to Bed tired

  Got up this morning fair whent to the Primitive Chape felt well but not so well as if I had been at our Own Church at my dear house took dinner with our Henrys Widow then whent to Leeds to our Johns with Our Wms Daughter and our Henrys daughter[211] found all well But our John he is poorly found my tickett from Glassgow to America and a letter from Bro Hodkinson saying he could not be ready till the first of October which was a great dissapointment to me as I wanted to be getting to my home in the far west. did not go to Bed this night sat up till about 3 oclock we left our Wms at noon a fine day but rained before we got there and rained quiet hard more or Less all the Evening

  with John William Sutcliffe then we whent in the Yorkshire Post and the Leeds Mercury Printing Offices they had got through the Morning Edition and was printing annother whilst we were in they print 12000 copies in one hour Machines are folding the papers up as fast as they are printed it keeps quite a nomber of Men employed to keep the papers away after they are folded up it rained when we left our Johns and it is raining and Blowing now One Oclock noon I have wrote to Hodkinson this forenoon and wrote to Glasgow to have my ticket altered to the first of October and wrote to our Mary had a little nap then whent to the Mill and had a warm Bath Came home with our John after the Mill closed after Tea we had some verry Serious and unplesant talk about Mary ann and Hodkinson which makes me feel, I where at home Whent to Bed to Sleep not much

  fair morning for a wonder got up feeling as tho I had no home and none to go two Started to hour Wms met him a Breakfast time told him my trouble Left him whent to Bid our John Good Morning he said get thy work don and I will try to do mine them where is last words he said to me this day Started to New Wortly changed my Clothes and took the cars to Brighouse to See our Mary & Maria got there after dinner and Sat down to write this. our Mary did not com to day, saw and conversed with a detective that had crossed the ocian 7 times but never put his foot on American soil we had a Drink togather he in search of sombod, and me to Lovenias we parted. his Real Name is Ibbotson but he has a many ficticcous ones he was in Disquise with a Basket on his Arm

  Brighouse got up 7 oclock the passing Bell of the Church was Touling the last of some poor soul takeing its farewell of this life wrote a Letter home the wind Blowing verry heavy poor Charlot Bink on the sea for Chicago one weak sail from Liverpool our Mary did not come to day I sent her a Post card saying I was waiting on her Mary Ann & Thomas is the che[illeg] Take[212] here our Mary Brot the news here last week[213]

  the wether is neither one thing or annothe in fact it never has been since I came sent a post card to Thos Camm[214] waited till night before our Mary Came we had such a Talk about Hodkinson & Mary ann affair we did not disagre at all she said I was not to think anything about it she said our John would be troubled enough for what he had said to me I whent out doors and wept like a Child that had no home to go two 5000 miles away from home Our Mary gave me some nice presents in the Shape of 4 or 5 Books 3 Allerts[?] and Brest[illeg] and a pair wristletts Lovenia Husband and me whent to Bed whilst the Women all staid up a verry winday day and Rain some hail came towards night

  Brighouse this morning we where called out of Bed by 3 oclock Lovenia was put to Bed and the doctor is here with her 8 oclock, at 9 the Child was born a girl[215] so I whent up to see the Child and mother then started to walk to high town[216], learnt on the road that Billy Lawford[217] was alive and thought I would see him first (we used to live there) Saw him and family and was made verry welcom by all the family verry indeed whent to see Thos & Henry Parkin[218] and was verry well Received got dinner at W Lawford, Tea at Joshuas and Slept at Ganoses[?] Staid up till near 12 oclock whent to Bed the Rosemarey tree that my [illeg] was Buried under was dead and gon Raining

  got up in the morning thankful and returned thanks to him the giver of all good had breakfast with Lawfords oldest son Joshua and supper Last night him whent to see Thos & Henry and all the family in the counting room they all wished to be rembred in Love to E A [illeg] family[219] he showed all arround his house inside & out it is a Splendid Building Cost a pile of money he sent a flute to E A Oldest Son (Birt) parted with Lawford family affectionatly and came to Brighouse and found them favourably My Sister & Mary & Maria where there I felt it hard to part with Our Mary as I knew we should have to part started to Walsden with our Maria rained verry hard after we got out of the Train got there and was verry welcom By Richd & Wife and Thos H & Wife[220] our Marias Sons

  a fine morning after the rain yesterday stayed with the family today as it would be the last and only day for them afternoon whent to see James Whitley, about 4 miles but he was not home we our Ma[illeg] sons whent to Hollingworth Lake[221] about a mile farther on where people resort for pleasure and pastime Crossed the Back Bone of Yorkshire a place where the Water Begins to run Either way North and South I beleive took the Train for home at Walsden and gave them to understand I must go and leave them in the morning

  a fine morning verry frosty spent the forenoon in Learning to make Muffins and left Our Maria & families with all their kind Love and a pressent for Mary & Maria and their good wishes for my safe safe return to my home in the far west Lankeshire took dinner with them and departed to Brighouse got there ½ past one oclock PM got my Tea with my Sister Mary and am now waiting to take the cars to Leeds 3 miles from heare, found my Sister Mary well and Lovenia in a fair way and the Child took tea started to Leighcliffe took Train for Bradford from Thence to Leeds got home to our Wms after Candle or gass light

  a verry fine day warmest day I have seen for a long time Left our Wms for our Johns found my Ocean Ticket arrived from Scotland took dinner Left and Bot a Trunk for my things sent it to our Wm and took tea with them Started to Horsforth found our Susey and all well was gladly received by all and Could have given a Schoree[222] or two of Our Pictures if I had them Slept verry Badly the Care and Anxiety of Leaveing here Bother me

  Another fine morning. All is well. Saw some fri[e]nds and parted with them for the last time with all their good wishes. Started for Leeds on the train. Our Susey sends some cotton, two pair of gloves Betty Shaw Farra[223] Six ancherchives. Henrietta [illeg] four or six. Martha a pench[illeg]. John Shaw wife two little shawls. Our Henry's wife a jacket, ½ dozen cups and saucers. Ada[224] a comforter or someth[i]ng else for thee and a pair [of] beads for Mary. Anna Rowbotham[225] about ½ doz[e]n shawls, scarfs and cousin John Rowbotham sends two gold locketts and three prest[226] pins and me a pipe. Cousin Richard John[227] Wilkinson['s] wife sends Maria and Mary[228] two little pots. Our Mary and Maria sends – we will see when I get home.

  Rather Dull this morning we have had four fine days for a wonder Got E Anns[?][229] Traps today ready for packing up bought a pilot over Coat 45 Shill ang 3 pairs gloves 2 [illeg] 9 Each and a pair New Spectakels & Case [illeg] 10d Our Mary whent with me into Leeds and Came hime Tired staid in all night did not feel verry well Was presented with a fine Momento of My Visit to England[230]

  a verry Dull misty morning packed up my B[illeg]ees Mary and me, whent up to Mr Nicholes this morning got a small Packet for Franks little girl dined with Eli Farrar dont feel verry well today

  Saturday a weding this morning at the Registres Office[232] Started for Crew[?] had to stop on the Road 2 hours in Consequense of an accident got to Deans & Robert[233] waiting on us on Station

  Spent going round Crewe

  Started from Crewe parted with all Dear to me Except what was with us[234] got to Northwich

  Started for Liverpool 8 oclock this morning took a repose the [illeg][235] got our Steemer Ticket Changed for the [illeg] left ¼ past 2 landed in Glasgow 10 oclock Night found Lodgins and whent to bed 12 oclock Raining all afternoon

  Rainey Got our Lugage to the Dock took the train for Greenock [illeg] the ship Laying at achner there on account of the tide got a Bottle Brandy ½d [illeg] Bottles of Ale ½ lb Tobacco and came on Bord Ship[236] Set sail 8 oclock Raney all time had to Cast ancher in the Night so dense was the fog

  Raining all day with heavy fog had to go verry Slow on account of the fog and the dangerous Rocks which was arround us took in Passengers at Moveal[237] noon very wet and foggy many sick

  heavy head wind vessell heaving bad nearly all sick me included

  Same as yesterday nearly all sick with a heavy cold head wind

  a Sermon this morning not many attended so many sick I am a little Better and would be glad to be by the side of my own stove in Wisconsin 2 day without food a verry Rough Night little sleep

  this morning awfull the wind blowing hard the vessel rocking awful the sunshines a little sickness showing itself again home sweet home when shall I behold thee again Oho[?] howfull[238] is the Sea rocking pitching waves comming over deck Makeing no headway Scarce Laid in my Bunk to stormy to be on top Lord have Mercy upon us

  rather better in the morning, towards night verry strong wind Slept little through the night On the whole the Best day we have hard so far

  at the time I am writing the Sea is Washing the decks all the time the Sea is Roling Mountains high sick to day the Wind Blowing like heigo[?] Mad I know not wet[239] this my writing will Ever be Seen by whome I write it for or anyone Elce it is awfull but grand to See a Ship in a Storm there is no safety on deck and but little Below little sleep this night

  a pleasant day the Wind a little favourable good many on deck had to get up early to warm my legs and feet spent nearly all day on deck not sick to day played a tune or two on the Pianoe Longing to be home, home sweet home Slept but little with the Cold we are 1523 miles from Glassgow today noon

  a fine morning the wind a head going 11 Nots per hower Sun shining only seen 2 vessels up to this time Slept poorley dreamed of home and its hapiness which all fled[240] like what it was Passed the Comm close[?] of Aberdean verry near. Looked pretty one oclock PM all hands on Deck nearly Closed the day with a favourable Wind

  this morning about as bad as ever Some Vometing done yet the Wind Changed from SW to NW since yesterday nearly a head wind and verry Strong ever cince we Started. Dangerous on deck to day

  on[241] the Banks of New foundland Bell or Wistle Blowing fog so heavy the vessel laid on one side so much so that it is nearly impossible to walk verry damp with the fog had Servise this morning I have a little pain accross the kidneys feel greatful for all ther Mercies of the week Looking with longing Eyes as to be at my happy home 4 oclock all hands at and in the Sails the wind changed the Sea getting verry angrey with the wind looks like a rough Night as ever we have had, but was plesant after all heard a first Class Sermon at 8 oclock PM and then Bowed my head before My God and whent to Bed Leaveing the Events of the Night with Him

  a fine morning but the Wind a head took Breakfast whent up on deck again had an Emaginary Meeting with my Sunday School Scholars and Teachers Singing thank God for the Bible when Tears of Joy filled my Eyes. hope it may be so again Passed a Vessel this morning, a lovely morning Commenced Blowing a head wind after dinner and his Blowing like [illeg] ½ past 6 oclock. it has Been one of the finest days we have had so far but is pretty whild to night with a head Wind passed 2 vessels this day

  a fine morning the Wind still a head but not so strong a Vessell just passed by us 6 oclock. the sailors washing decks and makeing all ready and Clean to Enter Arbour we are a little over 400 miles from port this morning verry little sickness on Board had a good many contrary and unpleasant Dreams through the Night which in a measure spoils the Pleasures of the day got dinner 4 oclock 2 cannon loaded Flags put up all around Saloon a Weding at 6 oclock Cannon fired wine & Bride Cake whent arround the Saloon Singing Speaking & Dancing the man who preached to us on Sunday night the Reverend Hancock minester of the Gospel in a Set dance Music Dancing &cc finished the day and drinking Left thim in disgust said my prayers & whent to Bed

  a fine morning the Wind a little in our favour took the pilot[242] on before Breakfast a verry fine day took Lunch at 12 oclock passed Several Vessels today ½ past 3 the sailors all tyeing up the Sails ready to Enter arbour the Vessel going along nicely smooth Sea Passed a Light House on fire Iseland about 6 oclock to night a many looking at it Passed a Ship after dark she fired 2 Rocketts

  got up this morning found our Ship at Anchor in the New York Bay Cast Anchor about One oclock in the morning the doctor came on Board found all the passengers well, and left for the Exise Officers to come on Board our luggage with us was took on Shore and Examined then we took a Stage Coach for the rail Road Station The Erce[?] traviled up and down New York till Evening then Started on the train from Jersey Citty for home ½ past 7 oclock

  on the Cars

  on the Cars Landed at Mazomanie 5 oclock Night My Wife and family and Many friends Axciously looking for me took a little Supper at Aunt Elizas and started home with my family and sat me down once more in my Own house Thankful to my Maker God for this Blessing

Near the beginning of his journal, Charles records the names and addresses of many of the people he visited.

Bod Torment al Root Strong a good drink when needed for Either flux D[?] or flooding
John Nicholson, Top of Church Lane Armley
Nephew Dean Sutcliffe, Camm Trrace, Mill Street, Crew, Cheshire, Engd
Nephew Rober Camm, Grocer, Brindly Sorel[?], Nr Congleton, Staffordshire, Engd
Brother, John Sutcliffe, No. 1 Richmond Terrace, Providance Street, Leeds, Yorkshr, Engd
Tim Hellewell, Valley Street, No 3, Valley Road, Bradford
Amonia Solution for the destruction of Chinks Bugs
Maria Wilkinson, Clough, Walsden, Nr Todmerdin, Lanchire, Egd
Sister Maria Wilkinson, Clough Walsden, Nr Todmerden, Lankeshire, Engd
Brother William Sutcliffe, No 13 Highfield Place, New Wortly, Nr Leeds
Samel Binks, Dennison Street, Vensor[?] Chapel, Kirksdale Road
William Nichols, Carroline Street, Georges Street, Salt Aire, Bradf
William Nichols, 48 Georges Street, Salt Aire, Nr Leeds, Yorkshr, Engd
Thos Camm, Canal Street, Congleton, Cheshire
J M Bagot, Covent Garden, Street Sunderland, Durham
John Wilkinson, No 195 Abbott, Road Buffalo, State of N York, America
Thos Oates in Care, Barraboo, Sauk Ca, Wisconsin[?] Stuart

Footnotes

  • [ 1] Though child labor laws existed in England, in the early 19th century there were largely unenforced. Children working in textile factories often worked more than twelve hours per day. The first effective child labor law was passed in 1833, banning children under nine from working in textile factories. Children between the ages of nine and thirteen were not allowed to work more than twelve hours per day and forty eight hours per week and were required to have two hours of instruction per day, while those between thirteen and eighteen (as Charles was) could work no more than sixty nine hours per week, with no mandatory education.

  • [ 2] Coldwell, Jane, A Tribute to Charles W. and Sarah Ann Blakey Sutclffe, ¶2.

  • [ 3] In June of 1844, at Barnesley, C W Sutcliffe became BTES shareholder #568 (Wolf, Frank, Ghost Town Dover and the British Temperance Emigration Society, p. 81).

  • [ 4] The Petersburg departed Liverpool in March of 1845 (Kittle, William, History of the Township and Village of Mazomanie, p. 20).

  • [ 5] The Petersburg arrived in Boston on 16 May 1845. Ancestry.com Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1820-1843 {database on-line}. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 2006. Original date: Boston, Massachusetts. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Boston, Massachusetts, 1820-1891. Micropublication M277. RG036. 115 rolls. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

  • [ 6] The buildings are gone, but Charles' Mounds Creek homestead was located southeast of Arena in Iowa County, at what is now the intersection of Highway K and Roelke Road; a chicken coop now stands where Charles' house once was, on the north side of Roelke, about 300 yards west of Hwy K.

  • [ 7] A Tribute to Charles W. and Sarah Ann Blakey Sutclffe, ibid., ¶3.

  • [ 8] Wolf, Frank, ibid., p. 138.

  • [ 9] In a letter to his Aunt Etta (Henrietta Sutcliffe), dated 1931, LeGrand Sutcliffe opines that he wishes he had "the diary grandfather wrote while he was in England."

  • [ 10] There was, in 1932, a Sutcliffe family reunion, held at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, at which Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe, daughter-in-law of Charles, presented a paper entitled "A Tribute To Charles W. Sutcliffe and Wife Sarah Ann Blakey Sutcliffe”. In this write-up, she speaks of Charles' visit to England, and states “he left Liverpool for America his home on September 30, 1873, and got to Mazomanie October 18.” While Jane does not directly credit her sources, the level of detail she provides at a date so far removed from the events strongly suggests she was working from written sources – perhaps even this journal itself.

  • [ 11] From Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe’s Tribute to Charles and Sarah (par. 16) we learn that Charles had held “many ... prominent positions” in the area, among them Justice of the Peace and the local school’s first teacher. It appears he was also the Sunday school teacher, and is here saying goodbye to his students prior to leaving for England.

  • [ 12] Nee Copley, Martha was sister to Thomas Hodkinson’s deceased wife. Like Charles members of the British Temperance Society, Samuel and Martha were married in England before emigrating to Wisconsin.

  • [ 13] Or possibly, “Marshall Tenlyson”.

  • [ 14] Likely Charles' second son, John Henry. Born in 1851, he would be 22 years old.

  • [ 15] That is, Thomas Hodkinson and (likely his daughter) Mary, who would here be about seventeen; John Gorst and his wife; and Charles and Sarah Ann. Fellow BTES member John Gorst and his brother arrived together with Charles at Boston in May of 1845. John subsequently met and married Prudence Copley, sister to to Thomas Hodkinson’s now-deceased wife Sarah.

  • [ 16] Charles' third son, George, here nineteen years old.

  • [ 17] The village of Mazomanie was platted in 1855 shortly after the location was selected as the site for a train depot by the Milwaukee & Mississippi Line (renamed in 1874 the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul), which was busily extending its line from its current terminus in Madison across the state to the Mississippi River. The first depot was built in 1855, at what is now 102 Brodhead St., but was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1857. It is at this second depot that Charles would have caught his train.

  • [ 18] While the Borwells here cannot be positively identified, it is apparent they are known to Charles. It is worth noting that the 1870 US census finds a Joseph and Martha Borwell family in Arena, Wisconsin, and that this same, or a remarkably similar, family appears in Chicago at the 1880 census.

  • [ 19] Sam and Charlotte Binks had formerly been residents of the Arena area. Charlotte was a sister to Prudence (John) Gorst and the recently deceased Sarah (Thomas) Hodkinson. By the 1870 census Sam and Charlotte had relocated to Chicago with their family and were now in Leeds, England, where Charles would encounter them on several occasions (cf. August 1st). The journal entry here clearly reads “John Binks”, but there is no record of a son named John. Perhaps Charles meant Joseph, Sam and Charlotte's second child. If so, he would here be ten days shy of his 23rd birthday.

  • [ 20] In the transcript of his journal Charles produced later, he specifically identifies this as the Pacific Hotel. Located on Quincy Street in downtown Chicago, The Grand Pacific Hotel was just nearing completion in 1871 when it was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire. It was subsequently rebuilt.

  • [ 21] Though raised in the Anglican Church, in America Charles and Sarah, like most of their fellow immigrants, became ardent supporters of Primitive Methodism.

  • [ 22] Founded in 1831, The First Methodist Episcopal Church, now the First United Methodist Church (aka the “Chicago Temple”), has been located at what is now 77 West Washington Street in downtown Chicago since 1838. The building was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire, but quickly rebuilt. It would have been this new building, itself replaced in 1924 by the current skyscraper edifice, that Charles visited.

  • [ 23] “Mr. Howard” remains unidentified.

  • [ 24] Fellow BTES member Thomas Hodkinson, farmer and ordained pastor, sailed for America on the same ship with Charles in 1845, landing at Boston on May 16 of that year. Now the recently-widowed Thomas (his wife, the former Sarah Ann Copley, had passed away in January, 1873) is accompanying Charles back to England where he will marry Charles' niece, Mary Ann.

  • [ 25] Thomas is certainly Hodkinson. The little Englishman remains a mystery.

  • [ 26] Of Newfoundland, perhaps. See the entry for July 5th.

  • [ 27] Charles' transcript of the journal adds “in honor of the independence of America”.

  • [ 28] The transcript adds “of shuffleboard”.

  • [ 29] While these first few sentences appear atop the page for July 5th, they were struck out. The similarity with the entry for July 3rd suggests Charles caught himself writing on the wrong page. The remainder of the July 5th entry appears on the recto, opposite this struck-out portion, with the remainder of the verso page occupied by the entry for July 6th.

  • [ 30] The SS Europa, a steamship of the Anchor Line, was built in 1867 at Clyde, a major center of shipbuilding in the late 19th century. The Europa's maiden voyage was on 25 September, 1867. Originally 290.4 feet in length, 33.7 feet in breadth and 1840 gross tons, it was rebuilt in 1873, adding 48.1 feet to its length and 437 tons to its weight. The Europa was sunk in 1878 off the coast of Cape Finisterre after colliding with the SS Saffa.

  • [ 31] Sickness was a serious, often fatal, problem aboard 19th century passenger ships, particularly amongst working-class passengers, such as Charles and Thomas certainly were. As such, they lived in steerage below deck in cramped, dark, damp quarters crawling with lice, ticks, cockroaches and rats, with little fresh air (portholes were provided for this, but were often “battened down”, particularly during high seas, to prevent flooding) and notoriously poor hygiene: bathing facilities were non-existent, and toilet facilities often backed up or capsized and overflowed (and Victorians, as Charles himself demonstrates, had a reputation for being obsessed with the workings of their bowels). In such conditions it was impossible to segregate the sick, and outbreaks of disease would sweep rapidly thorough the passenger population. Ships were often ill-equipped for emergencies, and ships' surgeons were notoriously incompetent. Such illnesses as marasmus, measles, diarrhea and even the fevers associated with teething took their toll of the young whilst enteric (typhoid) fever, diphtheria, small pox, tuberculosis and scarlet fever, amongst other diseases, preyed amongst adults. Congestion and bronchial illnesses were exacerbated by the damp. On longer voyages, the mortality rate amongst infants could reach as high as 20%. Here we see Charles and Thomas exhibiting all-too-common shipboard symptoms. On a return trip to England in 1895, Thomas would again take sick, and on that occasion it would claim his life.

  • [ 32] Probably not by choice. Provender on 19th century sailing ships, at least in steerage, was often as scarce as bathing facilities.

  • [ 33] As unpleasant as the journey undoubtedly was, the contrast with Charles’ first transatlantic crossing is stark: a mere twelve days, vs. some two months in 1845.

  • [ 34] Charles would return aboard the Olympia. See footnote for Oct. 1st.

  • [ 35] Charles' writing at this point is illegible; it appears to read “112 morning”. His transcript says, “12 O'clock”.

  • [ 36] That is, Moville, Ireland.

  • [ 37] With more than 400 passengers and crew on board, the steamship “City of Washington” of the Inman Line ran aground in the fog near Cape Sable off the coast of Nova Scotia on 5 July 1873 during its regular Liverpool-New York run. There was no loss of life.

  • [ 38] Charles' transcript reads, “Then went to the agents of the anchor line and got gold for our check which I got in Chicago.”

  • [ 39] Nephews Dean and Robert Sutcliffe were sons of Charles’ brother, William, and Jane (Taylor) Sutcliffe. Nephews Thomas and Robert Camm were sons of Charles’ sister, Elizabeth, and David Camm. Thomas lived in Congleton, some fifty miles and a bit from Leeds, and Robert in Staffordshire, some ten miles distant from Congleton. At the time of this narrative Dean and Thomas were about 39 and 43 years of age, respectively.

  • [ 40] It is apparent that Thomas Hodkinson has at this point fallen out of the narrative. While he will make appearances again later, it seems likely that he has returned to his home in Davenham/Norwich.

  • [ 41] Sic: is. This sentence is lacking in Charles' transcript. Mary Ann Camm and Dean (presumably Sutcliffe) would be first cousins, her mother and his father both being Charles' siblings. There is no known corroborating evidence suggesting the two were married.

  • [ 42] Charles had two nieces named Mary Ann, one the daughter of his sister, Elizabeth Camm, the other of his brother, John. Being currently with the Camms in Crewe, undoubtedly the former is intended here. She would be about 36 years of age.

  • [ 43] Congleton, Cheshire, England, located between Manchester and the Potteries, is about 50 miles south-southwest of Leeds, Cheshire County being southwest of Yorkshire County. Crewe is also here, a further 10 miles southwest of Congleton.

  • [ 44] Thomas and Nancy Camm were married before the 1851 census. No known children.

  • [ 45] The transcript reads “Robert Camms in Staffordshire”. Staffordshire County is located about sixty miles south-southwest of Leeds. Crewe and Congleton lie just outside Staffordshire County to the northwest.

  • [ 46] Charles' transcript adds “Dan[sic] and Robert”.

  • [ 47] Charles' transcript substitutes “Mary Ann”.

  • [ 48] Sic. That is, iron. The Crewe of Charles' youth was a sleepy hamlet with only a wayside station beside a turnpike road. But in 1840 the Grand Junction Railway company moved its locomotive and carriage works here from Liverpool and built 200 houses for its employees. In 1853 Crewe began making its own wrought iron rails, and in 1864 began steel production as well. By 1867 three other railways had built lines into Crewe, necessitating a large expansion of the train depot. At its height, the Crewe iron and locomotive works employed some 20,000 people.

  • [ 49] It was customary to refer to siblings with the honorific “our”. Charles will do so throughout his journal.

  • [ 50] In his transcript, Charles amends this to New Wortley and indeed elsewhere records William's address as 13 Highfield Place, New Wortley. This is also where the 1871 England census had him.

  • [ 51] Charles' transcript adds here: “...and I went in and was welcome by my brother and wife. Took tea with them.” Nephew Robert, accompanying Charles here, was the son of William and Jane, nee Taylor.

  • [ 52] Having left Crewe behind and being now at brother John's, certainly Charles intends John's daughter Mary Ann, not Elizabeth's. Now about 32 years of age, this is the Mary Ann whom Thomas Hodkinson will marry and take back to Wisconsin.

  • [ 53] Ada Sutcliffe, daughter of John and Miriam (Mason); half-sister to Charles’ niece Mary Ann.

  • [ 54] In his “Letter from John to Charles (1868)”, John says of himself, “I scarcely feel right well too days together, got as grey as a Badger and lost nearly all my teeth.”

  • [ 55] Nephew Robert Sutcliffe who had accompanied Charles to “take care of” him (see Charles' entry for July 19th); now he is returning home.

  • [ 56] We now meet Charles' sister, Mary. While some family histories refer to her as Mary Ann, it should be noted that neither Charles' journal nor any known records gives her a middle name.

  • [ 57] Charles' sister Susan “Susey” married Thomas Shaw; Charles also had a niece named Susey Camm, daughter of his sister Elizabeth Ann and sister to Robert, Thomas and Mary Ann Camm.

  • [ 58] Charles' transcript here reads: “Before that Our Susey and John and Ada had com”. The omission of the customary “our” before John here was presumably a transcription error. “Our” John had a son John, however, Charles generally referred to him as John William.

  • [ 59] Charles' transcript adds, “and Harriet”. Harriet was a grand-niece, daughter of niece Mary Ann Sutcliffe.

  • [ 60] Of his ten siblings, Charles here specifically mentions five: Susey, Mary, William, John and Maria. Three others – Dean, Robert Henry (“our Henry”) and Ann Henrietta (“Henrietta”) – we know to be deceased. Unaccounted for are Elizabeth and George. Elizabeth in fact makes no appearance at all in Charles' journal, and was likely already deceased: her husband was remarried in 1846, and there is a record of the death of a Betty Camm, of about our Elizabeth's age, in 1845. As to George, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe tells us he, too, came to America, to Ohio where she believed he was buried “long, long ago”. Nothing more does she know of him. But there is some evidence that George in fact accompanied Charles to Wisconsin for a time. A George Sutcliffe of approximately Charles' brother's age appears next to Charles in the Boston passenger lists for 1845. And in the “Letter from John to Charles (1847)” (now in the Edna G. Culver Family Papers), Charles' father addresses himself to “boath” his “sons”, and conveys his wish that “our George” be allowed a share in Charles' property in Wisconsin. However, it is known that Charles' and George's sister, Ann Henrietta (Sutcliffe) Parkin, lived for a time in Cincinnati during the 1840s (her son, Robert, was born in Ohio in 1844), so perhaps George eventually joined her family there.

  • [ 61] Charles' transcript here adds, “and our Henry's widow”. According to the death certificate, Robert Henry died 12 March 1867 at Highfield Place, New Wortley, England, from pleuri pneumonia.

  • [ 62] Henry was married (see the Robert Henry and Mary Sutcliffe Marriage Records) in 1844 to Mary Hunt, whom the 1851 England Census makes one year younger than Robert.

  • [ 63] Charles' transcript adds, “ at our William's”.

  • [ 64] According to the 1871 British Census, William was a “mechanic (fitter)”.

  • [ 65] The 1871 British Census gives John's occupation as “engine-man”.

  • [ 66] Presumably, John's.

  • [ 67] In his original journal, Charles has recorded the addresses of his siblings. John is living at 1 Richmond Terrace, Providence Street in Leeds, in a neighborhood now called Saxton Gardens, while William is living at 13 Highfield Place in New Wortley, some five kilometers to the west. It is clear John and William are working at the same mill. Though the mill remains unidentified, that they had time off from work for Orton Feast (see footnotes for September 1st and 2nd)) suggest it may have lain within Whitkirk parish, some four kilometers east of John's residence.

  • [ 68] Sic; stayed.

  • [ 69] A testimony, perhaps, to how greatly Charles' hometown had changed.

  • [ 70] Charles' wife Sarah Ann's step-mother was a Nichols. See the footnotes for August 9 and 10.

  • [ 71] The 1861 England Census (Robert Henry Sutcliffe) credits Henry with five daughters: Henrietta, Ann, Mary Zenai, Maria and Emily.

  • [ 72] See footnote for August 8.

  • [ 73] While both the journal and the transcript read “they”, presumably “then” is intended; it would seem more likely that Charles and Co. visited his niece's pub than a group of prisoners.

  • [ 74] Charles' transcript adds “eat and”. Eli Farrar married Betty Shaw, Charles’ niece by his sister Susey. The Farrars had been neighbors of the Sutcliffes in 1841. In her “Letter from Susey to Charles”, dated 8 Sept. 1866 (now part of the Edna G. Culver Family Papers) Susey Shaw reports that father, mother, and three children were deceased, leaving only David, Eli and a sister, Sarah, surviving. Susey also tells us that Eli and Betty were keeping a public house in Leeds; hence the food and beverages.

  • [ 75] Probably the reference here is to Kirkstall Abbey, a Cistercian monastery founded in 1152 and dissolved in 1539 during the reign of Henry VIII. Acquired by Leeds Corporation, it was opened to the public in the late 19th century. Its extensive remains are a major tourist attraction today.

  • [ 76] With the industrial revolution came a period of great change in Leeds, changes so dramatic in the twenty eight years since Charles had left, it must have been nearly unrecognizable to him. Massive population growth (from 95,000 in 1801 to more than half a million a century later), the introduction of the railway, the slow decline of the textile mills (in her “Letter from Susey Shaw to Charles”, Susey notes a “great alteration in the mill”, and that none of her children works there), and a spate of civic construction so fundamentally altered the landscape of Leeds that Charles' “a great many changes” must be an understatement indeed.

  • [ 77] A nephew. Thomas, John and Robert Shaw were sons of Charles’ sister Susey and her husband Thomas Shaw. Confusingly, Charles had five nephews named Robert (Robert Camm, Robert Parkin, Robert Shaw, and two Robert Sutcliffes), and four each of Thomas (Camm, Parkin, Shaw, and Wilkinson) and John (Bagot, Shaw, Sutcliffe and Wilkinson). We know the younger Thomas is intended here because Susey's husband had passed away in or before 1866 (see “Letter from Susey Shaw to Charles”). We will meet their sister, Martha Newbould, on August 8th.

  • [ 78] To provide a rail link through the hills between Leeds and Thirsk, a tunnel was proposed in 1843. Construction began in 1846, the year after Charles left for America, and was completed in 1849. Two miles, 243 yards long, 25 feet, 6 inches wide and 25 feet high, it reaches its lowest point just north of Breary Lane, dipping 290 feet below the surface. Final construction costs were 2,150,313 British pounds and at least 24 lives.

  • [ 79] Charles’ mother, Henrietta Wolstenholme died in 1847, possibly a victim of the typhus plague that claimed more than 1300 lives in Leeds that year. The “Letter from John to Charles (1847)” describes Henrietta's last illness and passing, noting “we have had a great deal of sickness and Death in all part of ingland such a time as was never nown in ingland before”. Charles’ father passed away in 1863, at the age of 79.

  • [ 80] Built in the 12th century, St. John the Baptist Church in Adel, often referred to simply as “Adel Church”, is one of the few, and one of the finest, surviving examples of Norman Architecture in England. It boasts a large cemetery with graves dating back several centuries.

  • [ 81] Robert Henry Sutcliffe had been a clockmaker or engineer, apparently of some reputation. There is within the Edna G. Culver Family Papers a card advertising a showing by Robert of “the world’s smallest steam engine”.

  • [ 82] Charles' transcript adds, “in the village church which runs 12 months without winding up and lights itself up in the evening and puts the light out in the morning”.

  • [ 83] Charles' transcript omits “Cousin or”.

  • [ 84] “Our Robert” must be Charles' oldest child, Robert William. Whether “our John” refers to Charles' brother or his son of the same name is unclear.

  • [ 85] This final sentence is struck out.

  • [ 86] Charles' transcript: “with”.

  • [ 87] The transcript: “our Maria”.

  • [ 88] The transcript adds, “Made their markets”. The economic boom of the industrial revolution brought with it an eruption of urban growth. By the early 1800s, the ancient Leeds market of Briggate was no longer able to keep up with exploding demand and a search was on to build a new one. In 1824, the vicarage known as Vicar's Croft was purchased by the Leeds commissioners and, in the 1850s, developed into what was to become the largest open-air market in Leeds. Located at the intersection of what is now Vicar's Lane and Kirkgate Street, the market, opened in 1857, later became famous as Kirkgate Market and the birthplace of Marks & Spencer.

  • [ 89] Although Charles was left with this impression, in fact Leeds, with its population of 372,000, did not approach the million or more residents Chicago boasted in the late 19th century.

  • [ 90] The transcript adds, “ Mary Ann and Ada”.

  • [ 91] Charles' transcript adds “his son”. Some sources make him John W., Jr., and assert the father's middle name is also William, though no positive documentation currently corroborates this.

  • [ 92] The transcript reads, “to be ready for Sunday School he being the Superintendant.”

  • [ 93] Although Methodism in Richmond Hill had its start with the advent of the circuit riders in 1803, the Methodist community met in member homes or borrowed facilities until 1846 when the Methodist Chapel was built on the east side of Yonge Street, south of Centre Street in Richmond Hill. The sermon Charles heard was likely preached by E.F. Goff, the church’s serving minister in 1873.

  • [ 94] The transcript adds, “in Armley”. The 1871 census finds an Ada M. Sutcliffe, age 20, amongst the students at the Female Training College in Saint Giles, Durham.

  • [ 95] With the explosive growth and urbanization of Leeds in the 19th century, the town embarked on a spate of civic building construction, including a series of cloth halls (such as Piece Hall, which Charles visits later), an elegant new courthouse, and this new Town Hall. Completed in 1858, the Town Hall of Leeds is a superb example of Victorian architecture. Originally much more modest, the tower design was augmented and construction completed just shortly before the hall was officially opened by Queen Victoria. The tower Charles climbed in 1873 still today boasts a commanding view of Leeds and its environs.

  • [ 96] The transcript adds, “(by permission as I was an American)”. On 21 September 1857, at the circuit court house in Mineral Point, Charles applied for and received American citizenship, more than eleven years after swearing an oath of allegiance. Charles’ citizenship papers are preserved in the Edna G. Culver Family Papers.

  • [ 97] The transcript adds, “Queen Ann which used to be on top of Brigate, the largest organ in the world”; a bit of an exaggeration. However, at fifty feet high, forty-seven wide and twenty seven deep, and weighing nearly seventy tons, the organ was one of the largest in Europe. It was built between 1856-59, with an echo organ added in 1865, at a total cost of 6,500 pounds.

  • [ 98] The transcript reads, “At our John's. After breakfast...”.

  • [ 99] The transcript adds, “his wife”. They were Charles' niece and nephew-in-law (see note for July 22nd).

  • [100] Sarah Ann grew up in and near Armley. Her sister Mary was born here and her mother laid to rest in an Armley grave.

  • [101] The transcript adds “Blakey”. A brother to Sarah Ann's father, apparently. Though no records confirm a brother Sam, information on the Blakeys is currently sketchy. It is perhaps worth noting that Sarah Ann's paternal grandfather was also Samuel.

  • [102] Transcript: “sons”.

  • [103] Transcript: “uncle Sam”.

  • [104] Charles' father-in-law, William Blakey. Uncle Sam here would presumably be a brother to William. Though no information on Sarah Ann's family currently available corroborates this, it's perhaps notable that William's father was Samuel.

  • [105] Charles' transcript adds, “in the cloth business”. Sarah Ann's father, William, is listed on her brother John's baptismal record as a “clothier”.

  • [106] Samuel Binks married Charlotte Copley, sister to Thomas Hodkinson's (now deceased) wife Sarah Copley, in 1845 at the Leeds Town Hall. According to Kittle, Charlotte's parents, James and Mary, emigrated to Wisconsin as BTES members in 1845 as a party of six. Whether Charlotte was among that party is unknown. However, according to Joseph Binks' Death Record, she and Samuel are in Black Earth in 1850 when Joseph is born. At the 1870 US Census, Sam and Charlotte are living in Chicago, with children Joseph and Sarah. But in 1873 they are, as we see here, living in Leeds, until they return in September to Chicago where, at the 1880 census Samuel, without Charlotte, is living with Joseph.

  • [107] The transcript adds, “at our William's”.

  • [108] The transcript says, “Judge Pollock”.

  • [109] “Assizes” were trial sessions or judicial inquests, either civil or criminal, held periodically in specific locations in England, usually by a judge of a superior court. Apparently, the event, and the appearance of the judge, were matters which generated great local interest.

  • [110] Charles' transcript reads, “the old parish church”, which may have been the Parish Church of St. Peter-at-Leeds (Anglican), located in Kirkgate, a kilometer or so west of John's residence. There had been churches on the site dating back to Anglo-Saxon days, and parts of the previous structure, demolished in 1838, likely dated to that period. The new building was dedicated in 1841, and is the edifice that still stands today.

  • [111] The transcript adds, “he being in attendance at the church.”

  • [112] Charles' transcript describes the scene: “Very many people waiting to see him come out into his carriage. When he got into it the trumpeters blew 3 blasts with their trumpets which caused a thrill to run through me and the people went to their dinners.”

  • [113] Not “our”, so must be the niece.

  • [114] By the late 18th century, parish cemeteries throughout England had become crowded, filthy and disease-ridden. By the early 19th century, spurred on by events such as the first cholera epidemic of 1831-2, a movement had begun for the establishment of civic cemeteries. In 1842, Leeds began levying taxes for the purpose of interring the dead. In 1845 the city opened Beckett Street Cemetery, which quickly swelled to become one of the largest cemeteries in Leeds, as Charles here describes. It is still today known locally as Burmantofts Cemetery. The cemetery lay about a mile north of John's residence. His second and third wives, Mariam (or Alice) Mason and Sarah Pickersgill Johnson are interred there. John would himself later be buried here, next to Sarah.

  • [115] That is, a laxative.

  • [116] Victorians. Bowels. See?

  • [117] Charles transcript adds, “in New Wortley”. In an e-mail dated 5 Feb 2005 to the author, Rona Newholme of Yorkshire, England, expressed her belief that this was Green Lane School. Built in 1872, the school (later Wellington Middle School) operated until 1982 when it was closed and, later, torn down.

  • [118] Born in 1828 in Glasgow, the son of Sir Peter Fairburn, Andrew served as the mayor of Leeds from 1866-1868, when he was knighted, and as chairman of Leeds School Board from 1871 to 1878. He would later be elected to Parliament and serve as High Sheriff of Yorkshire.

  • [119] Known locally as Armley Gaol, today operated as HMP (Her Majesty's Prison) Leeds, construction was completed in 1847, consisting of four wings radiating from a central point (allowing a single, central guard station to see all four wings), in common with Victorian penal principles.

  • [120] In his transcript, Charles identifies her as “niece Martha Newbould”. This would be Martha Shaw, a daughter of Charles' sister, Susey, who married Nathan Newbould.

  • [121] See footnote for July 31.

  • [122] An idiom, apparently. The transcript reads, “Had to vomit up my tea again”.

  • [123] In his transcript, Charles continues: “Martha Newbould my niece and I went through the prison conducted by one of the wardens. Showed us all the cells and different apartments in the place: the whipping post, the dark dungeon, the place the prisoners exercise in, three graves, two of which had been hanged in the prison.” Armley Gaol was the site of several famous executions; perhaps the graves Charles sees here were even from Armley's only public executions, of murderers James Sargisson and Joseph Myers, who were hanged together at the prison on Sept. 9, 1864 in front of a crowd of more than eighty thousand.

  • [124] The transcript adds, “(Eliza Wil­son['s] Uncle and Aunt”. Eliza, who married Thomas Wilson, was half-sister to Charles’ wife, Sarah Ann. Mr. and Mrs. (Henry and Mary) Nichols are brother and sister-in-law to Eliza's mother.

  • [125] Brother to Eli. See footnote for July 22nd.

  • [126] To date, the Rowbotham connection is uncertain. There is record of a James Rowbotham marrying one Anne Blakey in 1831, so perhaps there is a connection through that. See Sept 24 for a mention of one Anna Rowbotham.

  • [127] Or “Corn and Tidey”.

  • [128] Requiring three years to complete, at a cost of 100,000 pounds, the Bradford Town Hall is a jewel of the neo-gothic revival during the Victorian era, intended to rival the town halls of Leeds and Halifax. Its facade features thirty five detailed sculptures of British monarchs from William I through Henry VIII, with Elizabeth and Victoria taking pride of place on either side of the main entrance. The statue of Thomas Cromwell stands out as the only non-monarch amongst them. Charles will visit the town hall again on Sept. 9th for its official opening celebration.

  • [129] Charles transcript clarifies this as “Uncle Rowbothams”. The 1861 England Census finds a James and Nancy Rowbotham, with children Elizabeth, Henry, Sarah and James, in Bradford East End, Bradford, Yorkshire. Whether those Rowbothams are these Rowbothams is undetermined.

  • [130] See the August 9th footnote on Uncle Rowbotham.

  • [131] Per the 1871 British census, Henry and Mary Nichols resided at No. 3 Carlisle Road in Manningham.

  • [132] A community built from 1853-73 in the Aire Valley three miles from Bradford by wealthy textilist and benefactor Sir Titus Salt, with his own mills as centerpiece. Salt, former mayor of Bradford and member of Parliament, held progressive views on employee welfare and community health at a time when Bradford was amongst the most polluted and disease-filled mill towns in England, with an average working-class life expectancy of 18 years.

  • [133] Sic; “alms”.

  • [134] Sic.

  • [135] Unidentified. Not Thomas Hodkinson, seemingly, as they don't appear to meet up until the next day.

  • [136] The transcript adds, “in the morning and”.

  • [137] The transcript adds, “to his work”.

  • [138] The transcript reads, “...to our Henry's. Then we went up into Armsley. Binks left us. We went up to Uncle Sam's to leave them 2 years[sic; ears] of corn I had brought from America. Aunt Blakey...”

  • [139] Charles' transcript reads, “Frank Nichols' folks.” Aside from the suggestion of a connection to Sarah Ann's family, Uncle Sam and Aunt Blakey remain unidentified.

  • [140] Other than an association with Sarah Ann's step-mother's family, Frank and his folks remain unidentified. It would not seem likely that Frank is a son of Uncle Henry Nichols, as Charles elsewhere refers to Henry more directly as simply “Mr. Nichols” (cf. Aug. 11).

  • [141] See the July 23 footnote on the Old Abbie.

  • [142] The transcript adds, “Binks”.

  • [143] Charles' transcript clarifies: “This morning Thomas and me went around till noon. Afternoon we went to Round Hay Park with Mary Ann, Ada and our John. He hired a conveyance for to take us.” Thomas seems to this point to have been staying with the Binks, so this may be his and Mary Ann's first meeting.

  • [144] Originally given in the 11th century by William the Conqueror to the De Lacey family of Pontefract Castle, the tract of land now known as Roundhay Park passed over the centuries through a succession of famous hands, including those of John of Gaunt, Henries IV and VIII and Thomas Darcy. In 1872 it was purchased by the Leeds city council and donated to the people of Leeds as a public park. The land at the time lay far outside the borders of Leeds and could only be reached by the old “turnpike” road of 1808. While the park was eventually extensively re-landscaped, Charles, visiting just a year after the park opened, would not have seen the improvements. At more than 700 acres, Roundhay park is still today one of the largest city parks in Europe.

  • [145] The transcript adds, “and was without an umbrella. Got very wet.”

  • [146] Wesleyan Methodist Oxford Place Chapel, located on Oxford Place across from the Leeds Town Hall in downtown Leeds. The property having been purchased by the Methodist Church in 1834, the foundation stone was laid in Feb '35 and the Chapel was officially opened in October. The building stood largely as is until an 1896 redesign and expansion gave it its current Baroque facade.

  • [147] Aka “Agape Feast”, the Love Feast is a simple, traditional Methodist ritual meal which includes the singing of hymns, Scripture reading, and the sharing of faith stories.

  • [148] The transcript adds, “I remained silent.”

  • [149] The transcript clarifies: “...went home to our John. He was up and had been to see his fires at the mill to keep them ready for Monday morning.”

  • [150] The transcript adds, “ the rest of the way”.

  • [151] That is, Birstall Feast, or Birstalltide. See the footnote for August 21.

  • [152] The transcript says, “Maningham”.

  • [153] The transcript alters “John or rather Robert and me” to “Robert Shaw and me”.

  • [154] John Day married Frances “Fanny” Blakey. While the exact connection remains uncertain, Fanny's maiden name and the fact that Charles calls Fanny “Aunt” would suggest she was a sister to Sarah Ann's father.

  • [155] Fanny passed away in 1862, at age fifty-eight, and was interred in Birstall Cemetery. (John himself will pass away in 1879.)

  • [156] Celebrated annually on August 19, Birstalltide, or Birstall Feast, was a local Birstall tradition. It has long been believed by scholars that Charlotte Bronte drew on her experiences at Birstall Feast in the 1830s to describe the Whitsuntide celebrations in chapters 17 and 18 of her novel Shirley. Herbert E. Woot, in his Persons and Places of the Bronte Novels, quotes from the journal of the Rev. Henry Nussey – the “St. John Rivers” of Jane Eyre – in which he describes the events of Birstall feast as a “time of much iniquity”. Festivities included the Church Sunday School Festival, at which young scholars were feted, hymns were sung, and prayers read by the Vicar. In the evening at eight o'clock “supper was introduced, consisting of the Old English cheer, roast beef, plum-pudding and good beer, to which from 80 to 100 sat down. The day then concluded with music and singing.”

  • [157] Joshua Rhodes was a major land owner in the Arena, Wisconsin area in 1873.

  • [158] John Day was a tailor by profession.

  • [159] Charles' transcript says, “Slept with Uncle...”

  • [160] James and Samuel, brothers, were sons of Uncle John. They would be about 51 and 41 years old at this time, respectively; Uncle Day about 72.

  • [161] The transcript reads, “Saint Edmond Church”.

  • [162] The transcript says, “New Brunswick Chappel”.

  • [163] Transcript: “William Waite”.

  • [164] Charles' transcript expands "John W[illiam] Bagot and Waite ... our respective places" to "John William Bagot and William Waite had come to see me, our Mary's son having come to see me from Sunderland Durham and William Wait our Mary's daughter's husband from Halifax. We all went to Eli Farrers, a niece of mine and had a glass of ale apiece and then we all met in Leeds together with our William and our John and Thomas. We had a glass each and talked a little of earlier days and time present, etc., and then went each of our respective places." Charles' sister Mary married William Bagot in 1829 and had at least five children. Here we meet son John William Bagot together with daughter Elizabeth's husband William Waite. We will meet daughter Lovenia on August 29th.

  • [165] The transcript adds, “his work as far as”.

  • [166] The transcript says, “nephew John W Bagot”.

  • [167] The transcript clarifies: “Stayed till night and Thomas and me came back by the train to our John's, and nephew J Wm started home for Durham.”

  • [168] The transcript continues: “We went around some and went into the quarry and had quite a chat with nephew John Shaw. John is getting stone.”

  • [169] The transcript continues: “We went around some and went into the quarry and had quite a chat with nephew John Shaw. John is getting stone.”

  • [170] The Copleys are the family of Thomas Hodkinson's recently deceased wife, Sarah Ann Copley.

  • [171] The transcript reads "with Mr. Hill all night"; the Hills are unidentified, unless they are the family of “Mr. Copley's sister”.

  • [172] The transcript reads, “... into Sion Chapel and the school I used to go to on a Sunday”. Built in 1819, Sion Chapel was an independent (i.e., neither Anglican nor Catholic) church in the Halifax parish.

  • [173] First opened in 1779, Piece Hall in Halifax was one of many “cloth halls” throughout the area -- central marketplaces where cottage industry textile producers marketed their products. It is today the last remaining cloth hall in England, and now houses dozens of art, craft and antique stores.

  • [174] The transcript adds, "Night came and we had to go to our bed."

  • [175] The transcript adds “through Elland and”.

  • [176] The transcript says “tannery”.

  • [177] The transcript adds, “to the top of a hill called Beacon Hill. I thought I should never get to the top. I thought it would kill me to do it. I had to stop several times to get my wind. It was the biggest pull I had for years.” After the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a system of warning beacons was set up across England on prominent heights. The crown of Beacon Hill in Halifax stands 864 feet above sea-level, and would be a daunting climb even for a man much younger than Charles’ 53 years.

  • [178] In the transcript Charles adds “(Lovenia Cumpsty)”. Lovenia Bagot, daughter of Charles’ sister Mary, married Henry Cumpsty in Halifax in 1868.

  • [179] That is, Lightcliffe, about 1.5 km north of Brighouse.

  • [180] “nearly”, that is Maria walked with him “nearly all the way”.

  • [181] Charles appears to bathe at the mill (he will do so again on Sept. 15th), suggesting John's house had no plumbing. With the rapid expansion of the Leeds population in the 19th century came a flurry of new housing, much of it dreadful. In the 1850s, in response to cholera outbreaks in 1832 and again in 1849, Leeds built its first sewer systems, but it wasn't until 1899 that houses were required to be connected. Some neighborhoods offered shared public toilet and bathing facilities. In others, houses relied on cesspits or “night soil buckets” which were set out to be emptied at night by night soil men who collected the waste and sold it as fertilizer.

  • [182] The transcript says “tramway”.

  • [183] The transcript adds “and wife”. In his diary, Charles records the address of one Tim Hellewell in Bradford (“Valley Street, No. 3, Valley Road”), but this is some four and a half miles from Kirkstall. What relationship there might be between John and Tim is unknown.

  • [184] The transcript adds “in the silk mill”.

  • [185] The transcript adds “our John and me”.

  • [186] Castleford, located southeast of Leeds, was home to a major glass works factory in 1873. Charles’ nephew John William, son of John and Miriam (Mason) Sutcliffe, was an engineer there, and commuted by train from his father’s home in the Richmond Hills district of southeast Leeds.

  • [187] The transcript adds “John William”. Nephew John William Sutcliffe, son of John (and half-brother to Mary Ann), not to be confused with nephew John William Bagot, son of Mary, whom we met on August 25th.

  • [188] Caslteford was a major glass producer in the 19th century, growing by the 1880s into the largest glass bottle production center in Britain, producing more than twenty million bottles annually, most for export. Prior to the invention of the first bottle-molding machine (the so-called “plank machine” could produce bottles at a rate ten times that of a five-man team of glassblowers) in 1886, bottle production was still a matter of manual glass blowing. In the 1870s there were a number of major works in Castleford: Mear Glass Bottle Works, Aire and Calder Glass Bottle Works, the Albion Glass Works, and John Lumb and Company amongst them. Whether John William worked for one of these is not known.

  • [189] Or “Came back at night tired it being Orton Feast. Our John...” Orton Feast has been difficult to identify, but Charles' spelling may reflect the local pronunciation of “Halton”, a neighborhood in the parish of Whitkirk just east of John's residence. The Records of the Parish of Whitkirk, by Platt and Morkill, p. 48, describes a parish feast called Halton Feast which began on Halton Feast Sunday, “The first Sunday after the 26th of August”, the 26th being the Feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the Julian Calendar. “The few days succeeding the Feast Sunday are kept as a general holiday, and of late years this season has been rendered additionally attractive by Cross Gates Flower Show, which is held on the Monday and Tuesday,” which in 1873 fell on September 1st and 2nd. In addition, there is a mention of a Halton Feast in a local contemporary newspaper from August 31st. A further source, the “Factories Inquiry Commission: Supplementary Report of the Central Board”, Vol. 2, p. 250, published March 24, 1834, mentions Halton Feast “in September” in a list of events for which factories offer holidays.

  • [190] The transcript says “engineer”.

  • [191] Undoubtedly Charles' eldest, Robert Henry.

  • [192] Charles' transcript breaks off at this point, the rest of the pages having been lost. It is only with the rediscovery of the original journal that the remaining entries have been recovered.

  • [193] Or possibly “lane”.

  • [194] William married Jane, who was the mother of his sons, Dean and Robert. But by the 1871 census, William was remarried to Mary.

  • [195] Armley Cemetery lies on Green Hill Road in Armley, about 1.6 miles west-northwest of William's residence in New Wortley.

  • [196] See footnote for June 29 on John Binks.

  • [197] There is no record of William having a daughter, nor does there seem to be any Alice amongst Charles' many nieces at all. However, the 1871 census finds William and his wife Mary in Wortley, together with one Alice Blackburn, age 15, who is identified as William's daughter-in-law.

  • [198] Undoubtedly Charles' daughter, Henrietta, who was called Etta. She would at this time have just passed her fourteenth birthday.

  • [199] Sic; handkerchieves.

  • [200] Possibly a reference to Irvingism, an ecumenical religious movement founded in 1835 with the goal of restoring “ancient Christianity” to England.

  • [201] Armley Feast is still held annually today as Armley Festival.

  • [202] Undoubtedly, Sam Blakey.

  • [203] Flying horses: carousels. “Velocipedes” was a general term for a variety of foot-powered transportation vehicles, including the bicycle.

  • [204] Mary (Hunt).

  • [205] Charles' had visited the newly-completed Bradford town hall on Aug. 9th, but it was not officially opened until Sept. 9th, declared a holiday in Bradford, saw what a contemporary account described as “such a display as Bradford never witnessed before,” marred by weather conditions “about as bad as could be, short of a thunderstorm.”

  • [206] Though Charles’ handwriting clearly reads “Nicholson”, one is tempted to indentify this individual as of the Nichols family. See also Aug. 11 for a mention of “Nicholson son”.

  • [207] See footnote for Aug. 9 on the Nichols relationship. Though Charles here speaks of “Uncle” Nichols, it is likely this is “Mr. Henry” Nichols, as Charles elsewhere refers to him. Note that near the front of his journal Charles records addresses for “John Nicholson, top of Church Lane, Armley” and “William Nichols, Caroline St., 48 George St., Salt Aire, Bradford”.

  • [208] “new ones” is struck out.

  • [209] Lister Park is located in the Manningham district of Bradford, and is therefore also known as Manningham Park. Peel Park is located in the adjacent district of Undercliffe just east-south-east of Lister Park.

  • [210] Sic; commenced

  • [211] William’s daughter is unidentified. Only two sons are currently known, Robert and Dean. Henry, conversely, had five daughters. Which one accompanies Charles here is not known.

  • [212] Probably “chief talk” is intended.

  • [213] This comment is cryptic. Does Charles mean Mary broke the news of Thomas and Mary Ann’s engagement?

  • [214] Possibly to arrange the return pass through Crewe. See July 16 and 17.

  • [215] Ruth Ellen Cumpsty, the third daughter and third of what, per the 1891 census, would be seven children of Henry and Lavinia J. Cumpsty.

  • [216] Hightown, a hamlet in the parish of Liversedge, is most famous as the residence for a time of the Bronte family of literary fame.

  • [217] There is in the 1841 England Census one William Lawford of Birstall, wife Martha, with six children, the eldest Joshua, age 13 at the time. This William would be some 14 years Charles’ senior.

  • [218] Thomas and Henry are unidentified. Charles’ sister, Ann Henrietta married Benjamin Parkin, and amongst their children was one Thomas, who married Thomas Hodkinson’s daughter, Emily. It seems unlikely, however, that Thomas would now be here in England. There is no known Henry Parkin.

  • [219] “E A” is unidentified.

  • [220] Richard & Sally and Thomas H. & Alice. Richard and Thomas would have been about 29 and about 25, respectively, at this time.

  • [221] Constructed in 1800 as a feeder source for the Rochedale Canal, Hollingworth Lake near Greater Manchester began developing as a tourist resort from the 1860s, with rowing boats, paddle steamers and fishing as some of its favorite pastimes. The resort featured a number of tourist hotels, dancing stages, lock-up shops and vendor stalls catering to the upwards of ten thousand visitors per day on weekends. The arrival of the railway in 1839 brought day-trippers and weekenders from Manchester, Bradford and Leeds.

  • [222] Sic; perhaps score.

  • [223] “Shaw” is struck out and over-written with something nearly illegible, but which must be “Farra”. Of the children of Charles sister Susey Shaw, we here meet four: Betty, the eldest, who married Eli Farrar and kept a public house in Leeds; Henrietta, the second; John, the fourth; and Martha, the youngest. They would here be about 44, 43, 38 and 29 years of age, respectively. In a letter to Charles dated 1866 and now part of the Edna G. Culver Family Papers, Susey describes her eight children and their stations.

  • [224] Likely brother John’s daughter.

  • [225] See the footnote for Aug. 9 on the Rowbothams.

  • [226] Perhaps “brest”.

  • [227] “Richard” is struck out and over-written with “John”. Though Charles calls him cousin he must be speaking from his children’s perspective as John, now about 34, was the eldest son of Charles’ sister Maria. At the 1891 census he was living in Huddersfield with his wife, Alice, three sons and two daughters.

  • [228] Charles’ two youngest, being five and nine at this time.

  • [229] Possibly Charles’ second, Eliza Ann. Charles’ sister, Elizabeth Ann, was deceased at this point, and was in any case generally called “Betty”.

  • [230] This is likely a reference to the “Memento of Charles Sutcliffe's visit to England” created by Joshua Barraclough, a lodger of Charles' brother William.

  • [231] Not “our” so perhaps a niece.

  • [232] Undoubtedly, this was Thomas Hodkinson and Mary Ann, whose marriage registration shows them to have been married on 27 September at the Registrar's Office in Leeds. The studied indifference of Charles' tone here undoubtedly belies his conflict. Cf. entries for Sept. 4th and 18th.

  • [233] Being back now in Crewe, undoubtedly nephews Robert Camm and Dean Sutcliffe. See July 16 and 17.

  • [234] That being Thomas Hodkinson, Charles’ niece Mary Ann (now Hodkinson) and her two children, whose names appear with Charles’ on the New York passenger lists for the SS Olympia arrived on 16 October. Notwithstanding, Charles conspicuously neither names nor alludes at all to them from this point forward.

  • [235] Charles' handwriting for this entry is extremely shaky; he's likely writing aboard ship.

  • [236] New York passenger lists show that Charles, together with Thomas, niece Mary Ann and her two children, would return to America on the Olympia on October 16th. The SS Olympia, like the Europa Charles boarded in July, was a steamship of the Anchor Line, built in 1872 at Clyde. With a length of 307.1 feet, a breadth of 34.6 feet and gross tonnage of 2051, it was somewhat larger than the Europa in that ship's original incarnation. The Olympia was scrapped in France in 1898.

  • [237] Moville, Ireland.

  • [238] Sic; possibly, “Oh, how awful”.

  • [239] Sic; probably “whether”.

  • [240] Sic.

  • [241] Entries are lacking for the 10th and 11th.

  • [242] That is, the harbor pilot to guide the ship into port.


  • EGC-BIO-001b Charles Journal 1873 (Copy)

     

    The text and notes below are taken from my book The Journey Home: The Memoirs of Charles Sutcliffe, First Edition, which provides extensive research on the Sutcliffe family and on Charles' Journal. In addition to the below, the book includes photos, extensively detailed genealogies of some twenty Sutcliffe and related families, a 16-page bibliography citing over two hundred historical sources and an every-name index. 144 pages. You may download the book in PDF format by clicking here:

    Download The Journey Home

    With the rediscovery in January, 2017 of the original journal, much of the research and commentary here will likely require extensive revision. Scans of the original journal are presented above. Eventually, a second edition of this book will be produced, which will supersede this.

    Introduction

    Charles Wolstenholme Sutcliffe was born, in 1820, the son of a Leeds millworker, at the height of the textile boom that was to fundamentally transform Leeds and its environs during the course of the nineteenth century. As a typical child of a working class Leeds family in the early nineteenth century, it is likely that by the age of nine or ten, Charles was already employed in one of the many textile mills in and around Leeds[1]. Indeed, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe[2] tells us he was at one time employed to wipe down the engines his father maintained.

    Then one day, in the early '40s, with English society wallowing in the unease inflicted by the dawn of the industrial revolution, he heard the siren call of America, a land of promise and plenty and a future dictated only by his own hand. Over the strenuous objections of his family, in 1844 he signed on with the British Temperance Emigration Society[3], one of many such organizations feeding the wildfire of emigration sweeping the British Isles, and, less than a year later[4] boarded the SS Petersburg[5] for America and his new home in Wisconsin[6].

    But in the 1840s, Wisconsin was wilderness territory, in every sense a world away from the urban factory life to which Charles was accustomed. Charles found primitive farm life in Wisconsin immeasurably harder that he had imagined, and, so Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe tells us[7], spent many nights on his rough-hewn bed crying himself to sleep in loneliness and separation from all that he had known. But he persevered. Within two years of his arrival he was married, and then the children came, until Wisconsin had become home indeed. His homestead became a favored spot for cricket matches, of which the Dover community was very fond[8]. He was elected Justice of the Peace. And he eventually prospered sufficiently to purchase additional properties.

    And then at last, twenty eight years after landing in Boston, Charles returned to England to visit the family he had left behind. From July through September, 1873, Charles sojourned in and around Leeds with those of his family that remained and this journal, rich in genealogical information and Charles' impressions of the changes the years had wrought on the world of his youth, preserves the details of that visit.

    The Manuscript

    I initially discovered this manuscript in the family papers of my maternal grandmother, Edna (Gefke) Culver, a grand-daughter of Charles' by his daughter Henrietta (Sutcliffe) Gefke. Unfortunately, little is known of the manuscript itself, beyond the mere fact of its existence. It had been in my grandmother's possession for several decades at least, and indeed I had been allowed to view it once or twice myself when a child, though at the time its value was beyond my childish comprehension. Where and how my grandmother came by it cannot now be determined.

    Passenger lists for the SS Olympia show Charles, Thomas Hodkinson, Mary Ann and her two children, arriving at New York on 16 October 1873; and indeed, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe's write-up[9] states that Charles left Liverpool on 30 September. This being the case, the manuscript we have here is significantly reduced, breaking off abruptly as it does on September 2nd, more than six weeks before the end of his travels.

    The manuscript itself consists of approximately forty hand-written pages, numbered consecutively on the back. The first fifteen pages, encompassing entries from June 28 to July 25, were written in a black ink which has faded some with time. The remainder of the journal, from July 26 to September 2, appears to be written in the same hand as the first part, but in a darker blue ink which the years have better preserved. The consistency of the hand, of the ink, and of the paper, all point to the fact that this is a copy, not the original, probably executed in no more than a few sittings.

    The paper on which the copy is written is well-preserved, being in much better condition than a number of Charles' other documents also preserved in the Family Papers. The handwriting itself is in a style known as “copperplate”, typically taught to schoolchildren of the 18th and 19th centuries. But while this tells us that the manuscript probably predates the 1920s, it does no more to help us determine the hand that wrote it as the only known extant sample of Charles' handwriting is the signature on his will, dated 1875.

    Of greater interest is the date scrawled at the top of the first page. If we take this to be the date on which this copy was executed it becomes easy to imagine the manuensis was indeed Charles himself; indeed, if the year reads “1873”, then the manuscript may have been written, or at least begun, aboard ship as Charles was returning from England.

    The handwriting is for the most part clear and easy to read; there are only a few places where words were hard to guess, and these were more often due to spelling inconsistencies or the ignorance of the editor (me) than to lack of clarity.

    The manuscript was in my possession only briefly. When I relocated to Taiwan, I gave it into the possession of my cousin, Jo MacDonald, of Mount Horeb, Wisconsin. In the summer of 2004, on a visit back home, I digitized the entire collection. It is from these images that this work was created.

    Charles himself seems to have had little use for punctuation, and at times his journal runs on for a page or more with neither paragraph nor period in sight. As an editor, the only liberties I have taken with the transcription are the insertion of some punctuation in an attempt to somewhat smooth out the reading, and in a few cases the correction of some rather novel spellings.


    Oct 12 1873[10]
    Travels from America to England

    Started this morning with my family to Mazomanie in the Waggon. Left Mazomanie on the train[11] for Chicago. God bless me and the Dear ones I leave behind. Had a pleasant passage there; got in about 7 o'clock PM, found Mrs. Borwells[12], stayed all night.

    Thunder and rain this morning. Got up half past 6 o'clock. Took a walk to the river before breakfast. Then went around town till dinner time and spent a little time in a Sunday School. Saw Joah B[orwell?][13]. At noon went to see the largest [illeg] the Pacific Hotel[14] in Chicago. In the evening went to the Methodist Episcopal Church[15],[16], a house well filled and very warm. Went home after service to Mr. Borwells Mr. Howard Borwell[17] & Hodkinson[18] along with me.

    A fine morning. Went around town till half past 10. Thomas and Jack the little Englishman[19] got to Borwells [illeg — tired?]. Saw great sights: Teams and people on a [illeg — lump?] scarcely room to stir. Saw some splendid buildings. Took train at 5 o'clock for Detroit. Changed cars and got on the wrong line and went on to Niagra Falls. Had to pay $5.50 for our blunder. Before reaching the falls there was a smash up so we had to back out to get the cars and debris from off the track which kept us behind time all the way to New York. We again took our own train in evening and kept them till we landed in New York. The track being crowded on both sides of us, which made it very dangerous in the night.

    Landed in New York about 8 or 9 o'clock on Wednesday the 2nd day of July. 12 o'clock noon started to sail for England. Got dinner 2 o'clock hoisted sail. Ever so many women vomiting. Nearly perished for hunger before dinner; had nothing to eat since last night on the train. We had quite a job with the landsharks but we came off victorious. They were determined to shave us but they did not. A good many sick. Blowing the whistle every few miles so thick is the fog.

    8 o'clock morning had a good night's sleep. My head very dizzy. The wind blowing pretty freely from the southwest. Are going 8 or 9 knots per hour. A good many sick. Whistling every few minutes so thick is the fog. We are going along nicely. Thomas in his bed quite a while today. No sunshine, very cold and damp; a vessel passed quite near us in the fog.

    A beautiful morning — the fog lifted from the sea, flags flying from our masts of all nations, and 2 guns fired in honor of the independence of America. The sun shines warm, the vessel moving merrily along. Saw a vessel going to America. Had one of the best dinners I ever saw in my life, good enough for an autocrat. 450 knots from Sandyhook and two days' sail from New York. Thomas and I had a game of shuffleboard today. May the smile of Providence watch over me and mine.

    on board steam ship Europa[20]. 4 o'clock my mate Thomas very sick, vomiting and purging. Got up to get him some brandy. Had a very pleasant passage so far, going about 10 knots per hour. I have a little sickness at the stomach and a little diarrhea this morning. 760 miles from Sandyhook. A good many sick with diarrhea.

    Sunday morning. Both of us very sick with the diarrhea. Had service on deck in the morning at 10 o'clock. Since noon yesterday sailed 245 knots. A good deal of sickness on board[21]. A small vessel went by us this afternoon and two small whales. Had nothing to eat today. Service in the saloon at night.

    a fair wind. Rained some in the morning; very cold. On the banks of Newfoundland. Had some medicine from the doctor today; feeling a little better. 3 days and have eaten nothing[22]. 235 knots since yesterday noon. Thomas and me very poorly. Heavy fog.

    very cold forenoon; nearly a headwind. A good deal of sickness on board; I am very weak. 230 knots since noon. A head wind; very cold.

    205 knots since noon and a head wind; very cold, no sunshine. But little better in health both of us.

    Got up this morning the deck covered with [roapes?], the sails all up, a side wind sending us along a little faster. Very cold. Have eaten very little since the 4th of July which makes me feel very weak, and I am impatient to be at Glasgow. 233 knots since yesterday. Hoisted all sails about noon and we are going along good, rocking and pitching. Saw a steamer pass and 2 whales today. 10 o'clock night bedtime.

    The wind still in our favor. Sailed 245 knots since noon. Very cold. Our health is better today and we are beginning to enjoy our passage but impatient to be at our journey's end. Went to bed with a heavy breeze a little in our favor pitching the vessel merrily but fearfuly to me. Very cold.

    This morning same as last night. Run since noon 250 knots. The wind still blowing pretty hard from the north. A vessel just gone by us, the Olympia[23] for America. The waves washing the decks, pretty windy, very hard to stand on deck. Eleven o'clock night a little rain, the wind not blowing quite so hard. Must now say my prayers and go to bed.

    7 o'clock took all the sails in a headwind. Sun shining a little but cold. With a grateful heart to God for his preserving care to me. The sky looks a little squalmish. 248 knots since noon. Porpoises showing themselves first time today. A very fine day, the sea smooth and calm. At noon many people standing around on deck. A sermon by a Unitarian. Spent a very pleasant Sabbath day.

    Rained in the morning. A vessel passed half past 12 o'clock. Land in view, the north of Ireland. 221 knots since yesterday. All the sails are tied up at noon today ready to enter port. Landed passengers at Moveal[24] at 9 o'clock night for Londonderry. A telegraph despatch came on board of the loss of the City of Washington[25]. Mailed a letter for home. Passed many dangerous rocks, some very near, say about 200 yards from us.

    Half past 2 AM. Beautiful but dangerous scenes around us in the form of huge rocks, icelands and so on. We are 70 miles from Glasgow. At 4 AM we past a rather sleepless night on account of the dangers. About 50 fishing boats in view now, A smooth sea and little wind. Cast anchor at Greenock awaiting the tide at 10 o'clock AM after passing some of the most awful but grand scenes I ever saw. Some of the passengers here took the train to Glasgow. Excise officers on board. About 6 seized some tobacco and cigars hun[illeg] around pretty sharp. Vessels of all sizes running up and down the Bay of [Grenoc?]. Landed in Glasgow 5 o'clock PM. Rainy. Received telegram from nephew Dean Sutcliffe to go straight by the railroad to Liverpool. Sent him a despatch yes. Took our satchel to the station then found lodgings and went to bed.

    Wednesday Paid one shilling for our lodgings. Got up, went around Glasgow for about 3 hours looking around, seeing the sights, and [illeg] for a breakfast. 4 of us had a cup of coffee, bread and butter for one shilling. Then went to the agents of the anchor line[26] and got gold for our check which I got in Chicago. Started in a hurry to the depot. Got tickets 1/4 to 10 AM and started to Liverpool on a quick train. Saw beautiful scenes. Landed in Liverpool 6 o'clock. Found nephew Dean Sutcliffe and Thomas Cam[27] awaiting for me on the platform. K[n]ew them by the white amkerchive[sic]. Went with them to Crewe where Dean lives. By the train we went to Crewe. Got home about 9 o'clock. Had a welcome reception with my nephews and nieces. Went to bed rather tired and in a mending condition.

    Nephew Dean and Robert Sutcliffe had been waiting on me at the station 3 or 4 days. Robert was took very sick there and had to go home the day I got to Liverpool. Then nephew Thomas Cam came to watch with Dean my arrival. This morning went to see nephew Robert. He was very poorly in his bowels. The three of us[28] went around town till noon, then came home for dinner to Dean's. My health appears to be mending and I am very welcome with my relations I have seen yet. After dinner went around town with Dean and Robert.

    1873 this[29] my niece Mary Ann[30] took the train to Congleton[31] to visit Thomas Cam and wife[32]. From there to Robert[33] in Staffordshire[34]. Took Robert by surprise. He was greatly affected when it was told him at the dinner table I was his uncle from America. Never did I see more honest simple [mirth?] full and agreeable people. The weather is very cold to me and very dull and missely nearly every day. We spent a very agreeable day and came home on the cars. As we went in the morning we passed a smash up on the railroad. One man killed and another nearly. Thomas, Robert and me went to get a glass of beer and then went home to bed. They say I look better than when I came. I feel better.

    Got up this morning well. Nephew Dan[35] and Robert at work. Went with my niece Mary Ann[36] to market this forenoon. There is some very large Iorn[37] works here in Crewe and as large a place for railroad cars going in and out all the time. It would be a fine sight for our boys to see. Left Crewe at noon for Leeds with nephew Robert Sutcliffe. He came with me to take care of me. Got to Leeds about 5 o'clock afternoon. Asked me where I would go. I told him to the nearest place. We went to Brother William's in New Wortley. I went to the door, asked if William Sutcliffe lived here. He said yes. I asked him if he did not know me. He said no. I looked at him hard in the face a long time and he at me. I said I know Thee. With that he knew me and I went in and was welcome by my brother and wife[38]. Took tea with them. After that we all went to our John's and found none but Mary Ann[39] at home. But our John and Ada[40] had gone to our William's to see about me whether I had got to Leeds or no. We waited there till they came back. Mary Ann knew me right off but I did not know our John not a bit, he had got so old[41]. Went to our William's at night after taking[42] a while and a little music.

    Got up well. Went with Robert[43] to the depot to go home again. Went back to dinner. Whilst at dinner in comes our Mary[44]. Where is he, she says. Gives me a kiss then took her things off and sat beside me to dinner. Before that our Susey[45] and John[46] and Ada had come and Harriet[47] so we were all[48] at our William's except our Maria and our Henry's widow[49]. I went to see our Henry's wife afternoon. She is getting very gray. Spent all the day till night at our William's. When we all left together for the depot and each left for their respective homes satisfied we had seen one another once more. A hot day for Old England.

    Went this morning with our William to his work[50] and went into the engine house[51] to our John. Then went up to his house and wrote a letter home to America. Then went home at night with our William[52].

    Tuesday. This morning stayed in bed till after our William went to work. Went around a little as far as I dare for fear of being lost[53]. Went to see our Henry's wife afternoon. In the evening went to see Frank Nichols'[54] father. One of our Henry's daughters[55] went with me. Saw some of the prisoners come out of Armley jail[56] and they[57] called at Eli Farrar's[58] to get something to eat and drink.

    Wednesday This morning Eli Farrar and me started for Horsforth on the tramway to Kirkstall. Passed the Old Abbie[59], got to our Susey's before noon. A great many changes[60]. Many people know me who I have forgot and cannot call to mind. This morning was what they call a heavy thunder storm. Came on about 6 o'clock am and killed several cattle and a man and hurt a woman and did quite a lot of damage and the people all around seemed terrified whilst it lasted. Went in the afternoon with Thomas Shaw[61] to Pool a fishing. Went on the cars through Bramhope Tunnel[62]. Got no fish. Came home by the train at night.

    This morning went out to Adle Church[63] to see my father and mother's grave[64]. Nephew went with me. Got home to dinner to our Susey's very tired. Our Maria came in before dinner from Leeds. Laid down after dinner a while then got up. Had tea and went down Horsforth. Saw the clock our Henry made[65] in the village church which runs 12 months without winding up and lights itself up in the evening and puts the light out in the morning. Saw a great many people that knew me and I did not recognize them. Nephew Robert Shaw went with me. Our Maria brought me a letter from our John from our Robert[66] which was good news from home to me.

    At our Susey's with our Maria. This morning got up at half past 4 o'clock. Went with nephew Robert Shaw to see the gardens which he is tending [illeg] which were very pretty. Rained a little nearly all day. Came with our Maria on the train to our William's at night. Got home all well.

    This morning went with our William's wife, and our Maria into Vickerscroft[67]. Made their markets and then they went home again and I went forward to our John's. The streets of Leeds are about the same as Chicago for people, tramway carriages and so on[68]; hard work to get along. Found our John at his engines at work. Went up to his house and ate dinner with our John's daughters Mary Ann and Ada. John W[69] his son came home at night and stayed a few hours and returned home again at night to be ready for Sunday School he being the Superintendant. We had music and talking old times over till high time to be in bed.

    This morning went to the Old Methodist Chapel Richmond Hill[70]. Heard a beautiful discourse on predestination (explanation given) The Jews were the first Chosen of God, and the gentiles were predestinated to become the same. In the evening went to the Old Established Church (Saint Edmonds) and was very well satisfied and encouraged to go on my way trusting in God. Collections are took up after each service here. It rained some today. I heard our Maria is not well at our William's ever since I left them on Saturday. If she is no better I will see her tomorrow.

    At our John's. Started after breakfast to have a walk. Ada left for her school in Armley and our John to his work. Went with a friend of our John's called Mr. Rogers to the town hall[71]. Went into many places in it — court rooms and so on and up to the top of the tower. Was in the clock room when it struck three, which made the flesh creep on my bones. There is a grand view of Leeds and its surroundings. I sat me down in 2 or 3 of the Royal Chairs (by permission as I was an American[72]) which Prince Albert and Alfred sat in, and was in all of the principal rooms. Saw many other sights in the hall -- Queen Ann which used to be on top of Brigate, the largest organ in the world[73], and many beautiful sights which room will not permit me to record. I thought it would kill me before I got to the top of the Tower — 212 steps to the top. Got dinner half past 4 o'clock and got back to our John's about 5 o'clock. Very tired for one day's tramp.

    At our John's. Got up, had breakfast. Took our John's to the mill[74]. Stayed with him a while then went up to the top mill to our William. Stayed with him till noon [illeg] up to dinner. Had a little sleep, then went to Armley to see our Maria, she being very sick. Found her a little better. Took tea and then returned to our John's. Found two letters waiting for me from home, one from John Gorst[75] and the other from my dear wife, which was good news from home to me. I read them both to our John and Mary Ann his daughter. Had supper and went to bed with a grateful heart to God for his goodness to me.

    At our John's. After breakfast went down to the mill to our John. Started to New Wortley. Took dinner with Eli Farrar and Betty his wife[76]. Looked in to see our Maria after dinner at our William's then started to Armley[77]. Found uncle Sam Blakey[78] and wife home. The two sons came in after tea. None of them knew me, but uncle Sam is just like Father Blakey[79]. Stayed till night. Took the train to our John's. Uncle Sam is doing a good business in the cloth business[80]. Could not find any that knew my wife, many of them being dead.

    This morning I thought to write home but did not. I spent all day running around Leeds in various places. Could not find Sam Binks[81] nowhere.

    Writing a letter for home this forenoon. Started to find Samuel Binks. Found just on the point of giving him up. Charlotte about as usual. Samuel doing nothing. Took tea with them. Sam went with me to Armley and New Wortley. Went across the bridge where my wife used to cross in a boat then went to see how sister Maria was getting on at our William's. Then walked back to our John's. Found Ada had come from school and all the family home.

    Wrote a little more after breakfast for home then went to see our Maria on the train, she starting home. Got to our John's and took dinner with him. Had lunch at our William's of rhubarb pie and a glass ale; finished my letter for home. Came down to the mill to our John. 3 o'clock PM went in town with our John to see Judge Pollock come in to the assizes[82]. Did not get to see him today. The town was all alive with people to see the Big Man (the Judge). Our William came in to the lodge and we all met together at the lodge room. Bought a new pair of glasses. Where around with them saw a many new sights and a great many people. Then came home with our John, and our Willam went home.

    Sunday morning. The church bells ringing. Our John very poorly. I am afraid of him poor brother. We went to the Old Parish Church[83] this morning to see the judge, he being in attendance at the church. The assises commence tomorrow. Very many people waiting to see him come out into his carriage. When he got into it the trumpeters blew 3 blasts with their trumpets which caused a thrill to run through me and the people went to their dinners. I did not feel very well this afternoon nor our John either. We stayed indoors. Got a letter from Mr. T Hodkinson this afternoon. Mary Ann[84] and me went to Simmetarry at Burmintofts[85]. Our John has two wives laid there[86]. Saw some grand buildings on the road. A large place to to bury the dead, a great many tombstones and some very expensive, chiefly made from granite rock, houses. I wondered where ever the people all came from. We went home after tea. We spent the evening with singing and playing, Ada with the organ and our John with the basse. We went to bed, our John very poorly and not so very well.

    Monday Raining this morning. Went around Leeds a little today by myself. Got lost many times, but came out all right at last. Rained a little nearly all day.

    Tuesday A fine morning I suppose for England, but I think it cold. Our John very sick but at work. He has not been fit for work since I came here. He had to leave work at noon, too sick to stand it any longer. I went to see a doctor about my eyes. He said he could clear them and do them good. Went at night with John, William and Ada to the town hall to hear an entertainment on the organ — the largest organ in England but one, the smallest pipe about like a fine piece of straw, and the largest pipe 32 feet long and stops 130.

    Looks like rain this morning. Rained some in the forenoon. Left Leeds with J W[87] for Harrowgate to the agricultural show. Got there quarter past 10 AM. Saw a Kerby reeper and several other machines, but not American. All their machines are too heavy. Hay rakes, fanmils carts, buggies, thrashing machines, steam engines, stone breakers, sowing machines of all kinds. Their farming implements are all too heavy for the western states of America. The Cart Hubs are as large as 3 of our Waggon Hubs. The cattle show that is bulls and cows are about in the same proportion. There was a fine show of hogs and sheep and a traction engine at work for plowing or running on the roads. Steam engines on wheels at work running clover thrashers and stone breakers. Harrowgate was crowded with people. One shilling entrance into the fair the second day. The first day 2s 6d. Started for home on the first train 5 o'clock PM. Fare from Leeds there and back 1s 6.

    Thursday Our John very poorly in bed. A dull morning. Went to our Wm this morning. Took a little opening medicine[88] at night. I did not feel very well today. Has been what they call a warm day, but with us in America it would be called a nice cool day.

    Friday This morning had to rise rather early on account of the medicine took last night[89]. A fine morning. The sun shines this morning rather more than usual. Afternoon went to see the foundation stone laid of a day school in New Wortley[90]. The stone was laid by Sir Andrew Fareburn[91] Knight, the cost of it estimated at 12 thousand pounds. Then went through Armley jail[92] and then took tea with niece Martha Newbould[93]. Then went to see Charlotte Binks[94] to see if Mr. Hodkinson had got to Leeds. They had heard nothing of him. Came home to our William's to sleep. Had a pain in my stomach. Had to vomit up my tea again. Martha Newbould my niece and I went through the prison conducted by one of the wardens. Showed us all the cells and different apartments in the place: the whipping post, the dark dungeon, the place the prisoners exercise in, 3 graves, two of which had been hanged in the prison[95].

    Saturday A fine morning. Had a shower of rain before breakfast, so a light breakfast and took the rails for Beadford[96], or Maningham. Found Mr. Nichols, and 3 or 4 of my old shopmates of my boyhood, all of which were very glad to see me, and was heartily welcomed by Mr. and Mrs. Nichols (Eliza Wilson[97] Uncle and Aunt). They were to me like a father and mother. Had dinner with them and slept with them. I have not been so well this 3 or 4 days. Left our William's this morning. David Farrar[98] and I took tea with them, and then went with him into Bradford and found Uncle Rowbothams[99] and left them the corn and tidey[100] and promised to see them in the morning. Saw the new town hall[101]; it is a fine building. All the kings, queens and conquerors of England are fixed in niches of the walls outside, Cromwell among the rest, and Queen Victoria and Queen Mary are on each side of the principal doorway. Each figure cost 70 sterling. 13 bells are in the tower and plays or chimes 30 separate tunes.

    Sunday This morning fine but cold. Took breakfast at Mr. Henry Nichols, then went down to Mr. Tim Hellewell's and David Farrar's and we all went to Uncle Rowbotham's[102] and waited some time before they got ready to see Uncle James[103] up on the farm 6 or 7 miles from Bradford. Aunt Nancy and nephew Harry took the mule and trap so we had a good ride for the first time in England in that kind of a thing. Found Uncle home. Stayed till night and came home to Mrs. Nichol's. Had supper and prayers and went to bed sleepy. Went to no place of worship this day. I begin to think this day of coming home. I was so cold and such little fires kept on account of the dearness of cole[104]. I cannot warm me same as I can at home.

    Monday This morning at Mr. Henry Nichols Maningham[105]. A fine morning but no sunshine and cold to me. Left at noon for Salt Aire[106], a very nice place. It is built on about 60 acres of ground filled with dwelling houses for the work people and 44 alms houses which is a credit to the builder and founder of the place, Titus Salt, and 2 or 3 churches adorn the place and a mechanic institute. 820 houses which rent at a sum of 11,000 pounds a year. And other noted places which I cannot think of. But the man is a benefactor to the community. Came home at night with Mr. Nichols' son to Maningham. Stayed all night with Mr. Nichols. Very rainy afternoon.

    August[107] A fine morning. Started to see Uncle Rowbothams today. Went around some. Thomas[108] went into the town hall and another large building, I forget the name. Uncle John up at the farm so I did not see him today. I left for Leeds after tea with a promise to see them again before I left for home. Got home to our John's for supper. Our John a good deal better in health; mine not so good, but I think will be before long.

    Thursday Started the day at our John's with writing to home till dinnertime then started to Samuel Binks to see if Thomas Hodkinson had been heard of. Found him there. We went around some with Samuel till night and we parted each for home, highly pleased to see one another again. Took supper and went to bed at our William's.

    Friday Had rather a restless night with pain in the stomach. Got up in the morning and went with our William as far as Vickerscroft to his work before breakfast. Got breakfast then went to [illeg — seed?] Mr. Hodkinson. We went into Leeds till noon and came to our William's and got dinner all of us. Then we went to see our Henry's wife. Then we went up into Armsley. Binks left us. We went up to Uncle Sam's to leave them 2 years[109] of corn I had brought from America. Aunt Blakey[110] did not ask us to sit down so we left and took tea with Frank Nichols' folks[111].

    Saturday this morning sprinkling rain a little. Thomas and me went to see Kirkstall Abbey[112] with Sam Binks. Dined with Charlotte Binks, then went through Vickerscroft and around the town into Central Markett Corn Exchange and so on. Then went to our John's and stayed all night.

    Saturday This morning Thomas and me went around till noon. Afternoon we[113] went to Round Hay Park[114] with Mary Ann[115], Ada and our John. He hired a conveyance for to take us. It rained very hard while there and was without an umbrella. Got very wet. We all had a ride on the little steamer around the lake. I was sorry cold this day. Got home by the same conveyance at night. Very cold and wet.

    Sunday This morning our John very poorly from the wet and cold of yesterday. Thomas and me went in the morning to Oxford Chapel[116] then went to Samuel Binks to dinner. Afternoon went to the same Chapel to a love feast[117] [with?] two American brothers. Was called on to speak. Thomas spoke. I remained silent. There was a good love feast. My thoughts was on my dear home in America. Went to our John's for tea, and at night went to the parish church with Mary Ann and Ada. After service went home to our John. He was up and had been to see his fires at the mill to keep them ready for Monday morning.

    Monday This morning we both started from our John's. Called at the mill to see our William and John, then Thomas started for London, and I for Horsforth. Took the tramway to Kirkstall, and walked the rest of the way to our Susey's. Found them all well with their lumps of beef cooked for the feast[118]. When I got there, there had been 3 or 4 Maningham to see me on the Sunday, but had gone back again to their work. Robert Shaw and me went to see the athletic sports. Afternoon came on rain and rained all day. Came home to Robert's and took tea with them, and slept at our Susey's.

    Tuesday. Raining this morning when I got up. Took a walk through Horsforth our Susey midling considering. Took breakfast with our Susey. Afternoon went to see cricketplaying and then the athletic. Took dinner with our Susey. Today rained a little afternoon. Spent the evening with our Susey. Tired for the day. Anxiously looking for a letter from home.

    Wensday this morning left Horsforth for Leeds on the train. Got to our John's at dinnertime. Received a letter from home and a newspaper which did one good to hear from my family. Got my boots soled and heeled. Cost me 4 shillings. I am heartily welcome here and at home, if at home anywhere. Rainy now and then through the day. Got a letter from Glasgow and one from Mr. Hodkinson.

    Thursday. Started this morning for Birstall. Found Uncle John Day[119]. He was glad to see me. We went into the churchyard and saw Aunt Fanny's grave[120]. One grave new dug, and had coal to go through while digging it. Birstal feast[121] just commenced. Rained at night. It has rained every day since last Saturday. Poor harvest weather. Saw William Rhodes, Joshua's brother[122]. Uncle Day took me to his house. Got measured for a suit of black clothes[123]. Slept with Uncle this night. Uncle John and wife did all they could to make me comfortable.

    Friday Dreamed of home and my Dear wife, and found myself in bed disappointed. Rained a little when I got up. Took breakfast, then Uncle John showed me the house of cousin James and Samuel[124]. Spent the day with them, and came to Uncle's to sleep. A man killed this day on the fairground with his wagon running over him. Drizzling rain on and off all day. Uncle Day and cousins would like to see my wife, and wishes to be remembered to her.

    Saturday This morning fine and pleasant. Went to look around the town of Birstal and the fairground with Uncle Day. Got my beard cut at cousin Samuel's, and took dinner with Uncle and made a start for our John's at Leeds. Found Thomas back from London. We then went to a concert in the town hall then went home to bed. Rained a little whilst going home.

    Sunday A fine morning we went to Saint Edmond Church near my brother John's. Our John went to clean one of the boilers out which took him till noon. Then Thomas and me started to Samuel Binkes'. I went to our William's. They thought I was lost, I had been away so long. I got tea with them, then I went to New Brunswick Chapel. Heard an excellent sermon, text: 18 Chapter Mathew 2 & 3 verse. Thomas and Mary Ann our John's daughter was there but I did not see them. I came home to our William's. Took supper and went to bed thankful to God for his preserving care to me and mine.

    Monday. There had been quite a rain in the night. Poor harvest weather. A dull morning. Looks like more rain; did rain some. Stayed at our William's and wrote till noon. John William Bagot and William Waite had come to see me, our Mary's son having come to see me from Sunderland Durham and William Wait our Mary's daughter's husband[125] from Halifax. We all went to Eli Farrers, a niece of mine[126] and had a glass of ale apiece and then we all met in Leeds together with our William and our John and Thomas. We had a glass each and talked a little of earlier days and time present, etc., and then went each of our respective places. I went to our William's that night.

    Tuesday More rain in the night with thunder and lightning. Got up at 5 o'clock and went with our William to his work as far as Vickerscroft and then went back to breakfast. Then went to meet Thomas and nephew John W Bagot. We took the train to Horsforth with him to my sister Susey's. The engine broke before we got to Horsforth which delayed us about one hour till another engine came to help us along. Stayed till night and Thomas and me came back by the train to our John's, and nephew J W[illia]m started home for Durham. We went around some and went into the quarry and had quite a chat with nephew John Shaw. John is getting stone.

    Wensday Sent a letter home today. Heavy rain in the night. A good deal of grain to cut around here. Started from our John's with Thomas to Sam Binks and then took train with Thomas to go to Samuel Binkes and we went from their to the station and T and me started for Halifax on the rail (fare one shilling and fourpence) to see a relation of Mr Copley's[127], Mr. Copley's sister, and we saw several of the families and was very kindly received and entertained by them; stayed with Mr. Hill[128] all night. Had a little more rain in the evening. Saw some of the places of my childhood. Mr. Hill went with into the slaughter house, Peace Hall[129], the Old Churchyard into Sion Chapel[130] and the school I used to go to on a Sunday when I was a boy, and into the marketplace. Night came and we had to go to our bed.

    Thursday More rain in the night. Got [up?] in the morning. Got breakfast. Richard Hill went with us today around town. We went through Elland and into Wheatley and into and around a tannery belonging to some of the family connections. Came on a heavy rain and thunderstorm. We had to wait quite a while till the storm abated. Came back to Mr. Hill's, stayed all night.

    Friday This morning very rainy. Started Brighouse and Thomas to Manchester. They wanted us to stay with them longer. I went up what they call South Arm to the top of a hill called Beacon Hill[131]. I thought I should never get to the top. I thought it would kill me to do it. I had to stop several times to get my wind. It was the biggest pull I had for years. I called on the road to see an optitian, one of the best in the country, called Richardson to see if I could [get] a pair of glasses to walk with but I could not. He advised me to wash my eyes with cold water as much as possible. Got to Brighouse by noon. Took dinner with our Mary's daughter (Lovenia Cumpsty[132]) our Maria was here. I had to get me an umbrella in Halifax. It rained so cost 4s 6d and slept there all night.

    Saturday Started to Leeds. Our Maria walked with me a piece of the way to Leighcliffe[133]. Took the train and got to our John's before dinner. Got dinner and then went to the mill. Had a good warm bath and I felt better from it. An old millmate came to see me, John Hellewell, before I had got on my clothes from the bath wh[134] we had a glass together and I had to promise him I would go see them tomorrow, Sunday, which I did.

    Sunday This morning took the tramway for Kirkstall found John Hellewell and wife at home. Took dinner and tea with them. Then took my way back to our John's. Rained some through the day. Had a long talk about our younger days when we worked together in the silk mill.

    Monday This morning our John and me went to Castleford[135] 9 miles on the cars to see his son John William[136] at the glass works. We saw them making bottles of all sizes and shapes both for England and other places in the world. Came back at night tired. It being Orton Feast[137], our John went with me as they had a holiday at the mill. John William got us a permit to see all around the works. He is the engineer at the[138] many time have I wished myself home. Rained pretty hard that evening.

    Teusday Got a letter from our Robert whilst at breakfast. Had been looking for it a day or two, and am looking for another from home. I wish it would come. I was glad to have


    Epilogue

    Charles' Journal breaks off abruptly here, the last portion having been lost, and we are left to other devices to fill in what few details we can.

    Thomas Hodkinson and Mary Ann Sutcliffe were married just days before Thomas and Charles' departure to return to America. We can only speculate as to the circumstances surrounding the marriage, but we now know that, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe's write-up not withstanding, Mary Ann was likely not the widow of a George Sutcliffe. Her first two children, Harriet Elizabeth and Ernest Bedford, appear to have been illegitimate. Given the extreme stigma of the day attached to unwed motherhood, life must have been very difficult for Mary Ann and her family.

    In Wisconsin, meanwhile, Thomas Hodkinson, life-long friend and neighbor of Charles, was left after the death of his wife to care for his four children alone. Though speculative, the following scenario seems not unlikely: seeing the predicaments of both his niece and his friend, Charles suggested marriage. The suggestion being received favorably by all parties, arrangements were made and Thomas returned with Charles to England, where he and Mary Ann were wed. The remoteness of Thomas' home in England from Charles' only lessens the likelihood of a serendipitous meeting.

    Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe tells us that Charles left Liverpool on September 30th, bound for America. But she does not mention that he was accompanied by his niece, her two children, and her husband, bound for their new life in the New World. It was in Wisconsin, apparently, that the story of George Sutcliffe first surfaced (as, as Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe herself acknowledges, no records of George have been found), perhaps to provide a cover of legitimacy for Mary Ann and her children in their new life.

    The ship's passenger list of the SS Olympia shows Charles, Mary Ann, Thomas, Harriet, age 9, and Ernest, age 10 or 11 months, arriving at New York on 16 October 1873. From there they would have made their way back to Wisconsin, where Mary Ann would bear three more children. She now lies in Mazomanie Cemetery, having never seen her England again.

    Thomas Hodkinson made at least two more trips back to England. The final trip, undertaken just two months after Charles' death, proved fatal. Thomas arrived in England on the 5th of September, dreadfully ill, luggage lost, and penniless. He lingered for nearly two months; then on October 31st, at the age of 76, he passed away, and was laid to rest at St. Wilfrid's Church in Davenham, Cheshire, England.


    Footnotes

  • [ 1] Though child labor laws existed in England, in the early 19th century there were largely unenforced. Children working in textile factories often worked more than twelve hours per day. The first effective child labor law was passed in 1833, banning children under nine from working in textile factories. Children between the ages of nine and thirteen were not allowed to work more than twelve hours per day and forty eight hours per week and were required to have two hours of instruction per day, while those between thirteen and eighteen (as Charles was) could work no more than sixty nine hours per week, with no mandatory education.

  • [ 2] Coldwell, Jane, A Tribute to Charles W. and Sarah Ann Blakey Sutclffe, ¶2.

  • [ 3] In June of 1844, at Barnesley, C W Sutcliffe became BTES shareholder #568 (Wolf, Frank, Ghost Town Dover and the British Temperance Emigration Society, p. 81).

  • [ 4] The Petersburg departed Liverpool in March of 1845 (Kittle, William, History of the Township and Village of Mazomanie, p. 20).

  • [ 5] The Petersburg arrived in Boston on 16 May 1845. Ancestry.com Boston Passenger and Crew Lists, 1820-1843 {database on-line}. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc. 2006. Original date: Boston, Massachusetts. Passenger Lists of Vessels Arriving at Boston, Massachusetts, 1820-1891. Micropublication M277. RG036. 115 rolls. National Archives, Wasington, D.C.

  • [ 6] The buildings are gone, but Charles' Mounds Creek homestead was located southeast of Arena in Iowa County, at what is now the intersection of Highway K and Roelke Road; a chicken coop now stands where Charles' house once was, on the north side of Roelke, about 300 yards west of Hwy K.

  • [ 7] A Tribute to Charles W. and Sarah Ann Blakey Sutclffe, ibid., ¶3.

  • [ 8] Wolf, Frank, ibid., p. 138.

  • [ 9] There was, in 1932, a Sutcliffe family reunion, held at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, at which Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe, daughter-in-law of Charles, presented a paper entitled "A Tribute To Charles W. Sutcliffe and Wife Sarah Ann Blakey Sutcliffe”. In this write-up, she speaks of Charles' visit to England, and states “he left Liverpool for America his home on September 30, 1873, and got to Mazomanie October 18.” While Jane does not directly credit her sources, the level of detail she provides at a date so far removed from the events strongly suggests she was working from written sources – perhaps even this journal itself.

  • [ 10] Or "1878".

  • [ 11] The village of Mazomanie was platted in 1855 shortly after the location was selected as the site for a train depot by the Milwaukee & Mississippi Line (renamed in 1874 the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul), which was busily extending its line from its current terminus in Madison across the state to the Mississippi River. The first depot was built in 1855, at what is now 102 Brodhead St., but was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1857. It is at this second depot that Charles would have caught his train.

  • [ 12] While the Borwells here cannot be positively identified, it is apparent they are known to Charles. It is worth noting that the 1870 US census finds a Joseph and Martha Borwell family in Arena, Wisconsin, and that this same, or a remarkably similar, family appears in Chicago at the 1880 census.

  • [ 13] The writing has been obscured somewhat by a fold in the manuscript, but appears to be a name. The first name and last initial are almost certainly “Joah B”. It is only speculation that “Joah B” might be Joseph Borwell.

  • [ 14] Located on Quincy Street in downtown Chicago, The Grand Pacific Hotel was just nearing completion in 1871 when it was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire. It was subsequently rebuilt.

  • [ 15] Though raised in the Anglican Church, in America Charles and Sarah, like most of their fellow immigrants, became ardent supporters of Primitive Methodism.

  • [ 16] Founded in 1831, The First Methodist Episcopal Church, now the First United Methodist Church (aka the “Chicago Temple”), has been located at what is now 77 West Washington Street in downtown Chicago since 1838. The building was destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire, but quickly rebuilt. It would have been this new building, itself replaced in 1924 by the current skyscraper edifice, that George visited.

  • [ 17] Howard Borwell remains unidentified.

  • [ 18] Fellow BTES member Thomas Hodkinson, farmer and ordained pastor, sailed for America on the same ship with Charles in 1845, landing at Boston on May 16 of that year. Now the recently-widowed Thomas (his wife, the former Sarah Ann Copley, had passed away in January, 1873) is accompanying Charles back to England where he will marry Charles' niece, Mary Ann.

  • [ 19] Thomas is certainly Hodkinson. The little Englishman remains a mystery.

  • [ 20] The SS Europa, a steamship of the Anchor Line, was built in 1867 at Clyde, a major center of shipbuilding in the late 19th century. The Europa's maiden voyage was on 25 September, 1867. Originally 290.4 feet in length, 33.7 feet in breadth and 1840 gross tons, it was rebuilt in 1873, adding 48.1 feet to its length and 437 tons to its weight. The Europa was sunk in 1878 off the coast of Cape Finisterre after colliding with the SS Saffa.

  • [ 21] Sickness was a serious, often fatal, problem aboard 19th century passenger ships, particularly amongst working-class passengers, such as Charles and Thomas certainly were. As such, they lived in steerage below deck in cramped, dark, damp quarters crawling with lice, ticks, cockroaches and rats, with little fresh air (portholes were provided for this, but were often “battened down”, particularly during high seas, to prevent flooding) and notoriously poor hygiene: bathing facilities were non-existent, and toilet facilities often backed up or capsized and overflowed (and Victorians, as Charles himself demonstrates, had a reputation for being obsessed with the workings of their bowels). In such conditions it was impossible to segregate the sick, and outbreaks of disease would sweep rapidly thorough the passenger population. Ships were often ill-equipped for emergencies, and ships' surgeons were notoriously incompetent. Such illnesses as marasmus, measles, diarrhea and even the fevers associated with teething took their toll of the young whilst enteric (typhoid) fever, diphtheria, small pox, tuberculosis and scarlet fever, amongst other diseases, preyed amongst adults. Congestion and bronchial illnesses were exacerbated by the damp. On longer voyages, the mortality rate amongst infants could reach as high as 20%. Here we see Charles and Thomas exhibiting all-too-common shipboard symptoms. On a return trip to England in 1895, Thomas would again take sick, and on that occasion it would claim his life.

  • [ 22] Probably not by choice. Provender on 19th century sailing ships, at least in steerage, was often as scarce as bathing facilities.

  • [ 23] The SS Olympia, like the Europa a steamship of the Anchor Line, was built in 1872 at Clyde. With a length of 307.1 feet, a breadth of 34.6 feet and gross tonnage of 2051, it was somewhat larger than the Europa in that ship's original incarnation. According to New York immigration records, the Olympia had just completed a previous Moville-Glasgow-New York run on 14 June; she was undoubtedly now returning on her next run. New York passenger lists show that Charles, together with Thomas, niece Mary Ann and her two children, would return to America on the Olympia in October. The Olympia was scrapped in France in 1898.

  • [ 24] That is, Moville, Ireland.

  • [ 25] With more than 400 passengers and crew on board, the steamship “City of Washington” of the Inman Line ran aground in the fog near Cape Sable off the coast of Nova Scotia on 5 July 1873 during its regular Liverpool-New York run. There was no loss of life.

  • [ 26] The Anchor Line, the owner/operator of the SSs Europa and Olympia.

  • [ 27] Nephews Dean and Robert Sutcliffe were sons of Charles’ brother, William, and Jane (Taylor) Sutcliffe. Nephews Thomas and Robert Camm were sons of Charles’ sister, Elizabeth, and David Camm. Thomas lived in Congleton, some fifty miles and a bit from Leeds, and Robert in Staffordshire, some ten miles distant from Congleton. At the time of this narrative Dean and Thomas were about 39 and 43 years of age, respectively.

  • [ 28] It is apparent that Thomas Hodkinson has at this point fallen out of the narrative. While he will make appearances again later, it seems likely that he has returned to his home in Davenham/Norwich.

  • [ 29] Seems to be missing a word here – perhaps “morning”.

  • [ 30] Charles had two nieces named Mary Ann, one the daughter of his sister, Elizabeth Camm, the other of his brother, John. Being currently with the Camms in Crewe, undoubtedly the former is intended here. She would be about 36 years of age.

  • [ 31] Congleton, Cheshire, England, located between Manchester and the Potteries, is about 50 miles south-southwest of Leeds, Cheshire County being southwest of Yorkshire County. Crewe is also here, a further 10 miles southwest of Congleton.

  • [ 32] Thomas and Nancy Camm were married before the 1851 census. No known children.

  • [ 33] Certainly Thomas' brother Robert Camm is intended here, not nephew Robert Sutcliffe, as Charles had just spent the previous day with the latter.

  • [ 34] Staffordshire County is located about sixty miles south-southwest of Leeds. Crewe and Congleton lie just outside Staffordshire County to the northwest.

  • [ 35] Sic. Dean is certainly intended.

  • [ 36] Again, certainly Dean and Robert's sister Mary Ann is intended here, as Charles is still in Crewe.

  • [ 37] Sic. That is, iron. The Crewe of Charles' youth was a sleepy hamlet with only a wayside station beside a turnpike road. But in 1840 the Grand Junction Railway company moved its locomotive and carriage works here from Liverpool and built 200 houses for its employees. In 1853 Crewe began making its own wrought iron rails, and in 1864 began steel production as well. By 1867 three other railways had built lines into Crewe, necessitating a large expansion of the train depot. At its height, the Crewe iron and locomotive works employed some 20,000 people.

  • [ 38] Jane, nee Taylor. Nephew Richard, accompanying Charles here, is William and Jane's son.

  • [ 39] Having left Crewe behind and being now at brother John's, certainly Charles intends John's daughter Mary Ann, not Elizabeth's. Now about 32 years of age, this is the Mary Ann whom Thomas Hodkinson will marry and take back to Wisconsin.

  • [ 40] Ada Sutcliffe, daughter of John and John’s second wife Miriam Mason; half-sister to Charles’ niece Mary Ann.

  • [ 41] In his “Letter from John to Charles (1868)”, John says of himself, “I scarcely feel right well too days together, got as grey as a Badger and lost nearly all my teeth.”

  • [ 42] Sic. I.e., talking.

  • [ 43] Nephew Robert Sutcliffe who had accompanied Charles to “take care of” him (see Charles' entry for July 19th); now he is returning home.

  • [ 44] We now meet Charles' sister, Mary. While some family histories refer to her as Mary Ann, it should be noted that neither Charles' journal nor any known records gives her a middle name.

  • [ 45] Charles' sister Susan “Susey” married Thomas Shaw; Charles also had a niece named Susey Camm, daughter of his sister Elizabeth Ann and sister to Robert, Thomas and Mary Ann Camm.

  • [ 46] Charles' brother John had a son, named John William (elsewhere referred to as JW), like Ada, of his second wife, Miriam Mason. Lack of Charles' customary “our” for siblings and proximity of the name to Ada’s suggest the son is intended here.

  • [ 47] Charles' grand-niece, daughter of niece Mary Ann Sutcliffe.

  • [ 48] Of his ten siblings, Charles here specifically mentions five: Susey, Mary, William, John and Maria. Three others – Dean, Robert Henry (“our Henry”) and Ann Henrietta (“Henrietta”) – we know to be deceased. Unaccounted for are Elizabeth and George. Elizabeth in fact makes no appearance at all in Charles' journal, and may already be deceased: her husband is already remarried by the 1851 census; and there is a record of the death of a Betty Camm, of about our Elizabeth's age, in 1845. As to George, Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe tells us he, too, came to America, to Ohio where she believed he was buried “long, long ago”. Nothing more does she know of him. But there is some evidence that George in fact accompanied Charles to Wisconsin for a time. A George Sutcliffe of approximately Charles' brother's age appears next to Charles in the Boston passenger lists for 1845. And in the “Letter from John to Charles (1847)” (now in the Edna G. Culver Family Papers), Charles' father addresses himself to “boath” his “sons”, and conveys his wish that “our George” be allowed a share in Charles' property in Wisconsin. However, it is known that Charles' and George's sister, Ann Henrietta (Sutcliffe) Parkin, lived for a time in Cincinnati during the 1840s (her son, Robert, was born in Ohio in 1844), so perhaps George eventually joined her family there.

  • [ 49] According to the death certificate, Robert Henry died 12 March 1867 at his residence, Highfield Place, New Wortley, England, from pleuri pneumonia. He was married (see the Robert Henry and Mary Sutcliffe Marriage Records) in 1844 to Mary Hunt, whom the 1851 England Census makes one year younger than Robert.

  • [ 50] According to the 1871 British Census, William was a “mechanic (fitter)”.

  • [ 51] The 1871 British Census gives John's occupation as “engine-man”.

  • [ 52] The ease with which Charles passes from mill to John's to William's and back suggests a close proximity with each other. The 1871 British census puts William's residence at 17 Highfield [illeg. word;], Leeds, and John's at 1 Richmond [illeg. word], Leeds. But a separation of 2 kilometers hardly seems to suit these two locations to the sort of easy back-and-forth Charles seems to enjoy here. Perhaps John or William had changed residences by 1873.

  • [ 53] A testimony, perhaps, to how greatly Charles' hometown had changed.

  • [ 54] Charles' wife Sarah Ann's step-mother was a Nichols. See the footnotes for August 9 and 10.

  • [ 55] The 1861 England Census (Robert Henry Sutcliffe) credits Henry with five daughters: Henrietta, Ann, Mary Zenai, Maria and Emily.

  • [ 56] See footnote for August 8.

  • [ 57] Sic. Likely, “then” is intended.

  • [ 58] Eli Farrar married Betty Shaw, Charles’ niece by his sister Susey. The Farrars had been neighbors of the Sutcliffes in 1841. In her “Letter from Susey to Charles”, dated 8 Sept. 1866 (now part of the Edna G. Culver Family Papers) Susey Shaw reports that father, mother, and three children were deceased, leaving only David, Eli and a sister, Sarah, surviving. Susey also tells us that Eli and Betty were keeping a public house (i.e., a pub) in Leeds; hence the food and beverages.

  • [ 59] Probably the reference here is to Kirkstall Abbey, a Cistercian monastery founded in 1152 and dissolved in 1539 during the reign of Henry VIII. Acquired by Leeds Corporation, it was opened to the public in the late 19th century. Its extensive remains are a major tourist attraction today.

  • [ 60] With the industrial revolution came a period of great change in Leeds, changes so dramatic in the twenty eight years since Charles had left, it must have been nearly unrecognizable to him. Massive population growth (from 50,000 in 1801 to nearly half a million a century later), the introduction of the railway, the slow decline of the textile mills (in her “Letter from Susey Shaw to Charles”, Susey notes a “great alteration in the mill”, and that none of her children works there), and a spate of civic construction so fundamentally altered the landscape of Leeds that Charles' “a great many changes” must be an understatement indeed.

  • [ 61] A nephew. Thomas, John and Robert Shaw were sons of Charles’ sister Susey and her husband Thomas Shaw. Confusingly, Charles had five nephews named Robert (Robert Camm, Robert Parkin, Robert Shaw, and two Robert Sutcliffes), and four each of Thomas (Camm, Parkin, Shaw, and Wilkinson) and John (Bagot, Shaw, Sutcliffe and Wilkinson). We know the younger Thomas is intended here because Susey's husband had passed away in or before 1866 (see “Letter from Susey Shaw to Charles”). We will meet their sister, Martha Newbould, on August 8th.

  • [ 62] To provide a rail link through the hills between Leeds and Thirsk, a tunnel was proposed in 1843. Construction began in 1846, the year after Charles left for America, and was completed in 1849. Two miles, 243 yards long, 25 feet, 6 inches wide and 25 feet high, it reaches its lowest point just north of Breary Lane, dipping 290 feet below the surface. Final construction costs were 2,150,313 British pounds and at least 24 lives.

  • [ 63] Built in the 12th century, St. John the Baptist Church in Adel, often referred to simply as “Adel Church”, is one of the few, and one of the finest, surviving examples of Norman Architecture in England. It boasts a large cemetery with graves dating back several centuries.

  • [ 64] Charles’ mother, Henrietta Wolstenholme died in 1847, possibly a victim of the typhus plague that claimed more than 1300 lives in Leeds that year. The “Letter from John to Charles (1847)” describes Henrietta's last illness and passing, noting “we have had a great deal of sickness and Death in all part of ingland such a time as was never nown in ingland before”. Charles’ father passed away in 1863, at the age of 79.

  • [ 65] Robert Henry Sutcliffe had been a clockmaker or engineer, apparently of some reputation. There is within the Edna G. Culver Family Papers a card advertising a showing by Robert of “the world’s smallest steam engine”.

  • [ 66] “Our Robert” must be Charles' oldest child, Robert William. Whether “our John” refers to Charles' brother or his son of the same name is unclear.

  • [ 67] The economic boom of the industrial revolution brought with it an eruption of urban growth. By the early 1800s, the ancient Leeds market of Briggate was no longer able to keep up with exploding demand and a search was on to build a new one. In 1824, the vicarage known as Vicar's Croft was purchased by the Leeds commissioners and, in the 1850s, developed into what was to become the largest open-air market in Leeds. Located at the intersection of what is now Vicar's Lane and Kirkgate Street, the market, opened in 1857, later became famous as Kirkgate Market and the birthplace of Marks & Spencer.

  • [ 68] Although Charles was left with this impression, in fact Leeds, with its population of perhaps 160,000, did not approach the million or more residents Chicago boasted in the late 19th century.

  • [ 69] Some sources make him John W., Jr., and assert the father's middle name is also William, though no positive documentation currently corroborates this.

  • [ 70] Although Methodism in Richmond Hill had its start with the advent of the circuit riders in 1803, the Methodist community met in member homes or borrowed facilities until 1846 when the Methodist Chapel was built on the east side of Yonge Street, south of Centre Street in Richmond Hill. The sermon Charles heard was likely preached by E.F. Goff, the church’s serving minister in 1873.

  • [ 71] With the explosive growth and urbanization of Leeds in the 19th century, the town embarked on a spate of civic building construction, including a series of cloth halls (such as Piece Hall, which Charles visits later), an elegant new courthouse, and this new Town Hall. Completed in 1858, the Town Hall of Leeds is a superb example of Victorian architecture. Originally much more modest, the tower design was augmented and construction completed just shortly before the hall was officially opened by Queen Victoria. The tower Charles climbed in 1873 still today boasts a commanding view of Leeds and its environs.

  • [ 72] On 21 September 1857, at the circuit court house in Mineral Point, Charles applied for and received American citizenship, more than eleven years after swearing an oath of allegiance. Charles’ citizenship papers are preserved in the Edna G. Culver Family Papers.

  • [ 73] A bit of an exaggeration. However, at fifty feet high, forty-seven wide and twenty seven deep, and weighing nearly seventy tons, the organ was one of the largest in Europe. It was built between 1856-59, with an echo organ added in 1865, at a total cost of 6,500 pounds.

  • [ 74] In 1841 the Robert Sutcliffe family lived on the Horsforth side of Low Lane. On the Cookridge side for a time stood the Cookridge Silk Mill. Based perhaps on this, it has been suggested this is “The Mill” referred to both here and in Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe's 1932 Tribute to Charles W. and Sarah Ann Blakey Sutcliffe. However, the Cookridge Mill wasn't built until the late '40s, and was reportedly gutted by fire in May '73, when production ceased. The property was sold in '75, and in '84 new buildings were erected (from which point it was also known as the Charnley Mill) and textile production resumed. Thus the Cookridge Mill could neither have been the mill at which Charles worked in his youth, nor could it be the mill to which Charles accompanies John here. In 1871 Cookridge Mill employed 14 men or boys and 30 girls.

  • [ 75] According to ship’s passenger lists, John Gorst and his brother arrived together with Charles at Boston in May of 1845. According to History of Dane County (CW Butterfield; History of Dane County, Wisconsin, Western Historical Company: Chicago, 1880; p 1262), in Wisconsin, John met and married Prudence Copley, a sister of Thomas Hodkinson’s now-deceased wife Sarah.

  • [ 76] Niece and nephew-in-law (see note for July 22nd).

  • [ 77] Sarah Ann grew up in and near Armley. Her sister Mary was born here and her mother laid to rest in an Armley grave.

  • [ 78] A brother to Sarah Ann's father, apparently. Though no records confirm a brother Sam, information on the Blakeys is currently sketchy. It is perhaps worth noting that Sarah Ann's paternal grandfather was also Samuel.

  • [ 79] Charles' father-in-law, William Blakey. Uncle Sam here would presumably be a brother to William. Though no information on Sarah Ann's family currently available corroborates this, it's perhaps notable that William's father was Samuel.

  • [ 80] Sarah Ann's father, William, is listed on her brother John's baptismal record as a “clothier”.

  • [ 81] Samuel Binks married Charlotte Copley, sister to Thomas Hodkinson's (now deceased) wife Sarah Copley, in 1845 at the Leeds Town Hall. According to Kittle, Charlotte's parents, James and Mary, emigrated to Wisconsin as BTES members in 1845 as a party of six. Whether Charlotte was among that party is unknown. However, according to Joseph Binks' Death Record, she and Samuel are in Black Earth in 1850 when Joseph is born. At the 1870 US Census, Sam and Charlotte are living in Chicago, with children Joseph and Sarah. And at the 1880 census Samuel, without Charlotte, is living with Joseph in Chicago. Yet Sam and Charlotte make several appearances in Charles' Journal in July and August, and appear to be living in Leeds. This discrepancy cannot at present be resolved.

  • [ 82] “Assizes” were trial sessions or judicial inquests, either civil or criminal, held periodically in specific locations in England, usually by a judge of a superior court. Apparently, the event, and the appearance of the judge, were matters which generated great local interest.

  • [ 83] The Parish Church of St. Peter-at-Leeds (Anglican), located in Kirkgate. There had been churches on the site dating back to Anglo-Saxon days, and parts of the previous structure, demolished in 1838, likely dated to that period. The new building was dedicated in 1841, and is the edifice that still stands today.

  • [ 84] Not “our”, so must be the niece.

  • [ 85] By the late 18th century, parish cemeteries throughout England had become crowded, filthy and disease-ridden. By the early 19th century, spurred on by events such as the first cholera epidemic of 1831-2, a movement had begun for the establishment of civic cemeteries. In 1842, Leeds began levying taxes for the purpose of interring the dead. In 1845 the city opened Beckett Street Cemetery, which is still today known locally as Burmantofts Cemetery.

  • [ 86] His second and third: Mariam (or Alice) Mason and Sarah Pickersgill Johnson. His first wife, Harriet Thomas (mother of Mary Ann), died prior to 1842 and thus is buried elsewhere. John would himself later be buried here, next to his third wife.

  • [ 87] Nephew John William.

  • [ 88] That is, a laxative.

  • [ 89] Victorians. Bowels. See?

  • [ 90] In an e-mail dated 5 Feb 2005 to the author, Rona Newholme of Yorkshire, England, expressed her belief that this was Green Lane School. Built in 1872, the school (later Wellington Middle School) operated until 1982 when it was closed and, later, torn down.

  • [ 91] Born in 1828 in Glasgow, the son of Sir Peter Fairburn, Andrew served as the mayor of Leeds from 1866-1868, when he was knighted, and as chairman of Leeds School Board from 1871 to 1878. He would later be elected to Parliament and serve as High Sheriff of Yorkshire.

  • [ 92] Known locally as Armley Gaol, today operated as HMP (Her Majesty's Prison) Leeds, construction was completed in 1847, consisting of four wings radiating from a central point, in common with Victorian penal principles.

  • [ 93] Martha Shaw, daughter of Charles' sister, Susey, who married Nathan Newbould.

  • [ 94] See footnote for July 31.

  • [ 95] Armley Gaol was the site of several famous executions; perhaps the graves Charles sees here were even from Armley's only public executions, of murderers James Sargisson and Joseph Myers, who were hanged together at the prison on Sept. 9, 1864 in front of a crowd of more than eighty thousand.

  • [ 96] Sic. Bradford is certainly intended here.

  • [ 97] Eliza (married Thomas Wilson) was half-sister to Charles’ wife, Sarah Ann. Mr. and Mrs. (Henry and Mary) Nichols are brother and sister-in-law to Eliza's mother.

  • [ 98] Brother to Eli. See footnote for July 22nd.

  • [ 99] To date, the Rowbotham connection is uncertain. There is record of a James Rowbotham marrying one Anne Blakey in 1831, so perhaps there is a connection through that.

  • [100] Or “Corn and Tidey”.

  • [101] Still standing today in Centenary Square, Bradford, West Yorkshire, the Bradford Town Hall took three years to build, at a cost of 100,000 pounds. It was intended to rival the town halls of Leeds and Halifax. Charles is seeing the town hall exactly one month before its official opening, on 9 Sept. 1873.

  • [102] The 1861 England Census finds a James and Nancy Rowbotham, with children Elizabeth, Henry, Sarah and James, in Bradford East End, Bradford, Yorkshire. Whether those Rowbothams are these Rowbothams is undetermined.

  • [103] See the August 9th footnote on Uncle Rowbotham.

  • [104] Coal.

  • [105] Per the 1871 British census, Henry and Mary Nichols resided at No. 3 Carlisle Road in Manningham.

  • [106] A community built from 1853-73 in the Aire Valley three miles from Bradford by wealthy textilist and benefactor Sir Titus Salt, with his own mills as centerpiece. Salt, former mayor of Bradford and member of Parliament, held progressive views on employee welfare and community health at a time when Bradford was amongst the most polluted and disease-filled mill towns in England, with an average working-class life expectancy of 18 years.

  • [107] Charles gets his days confused here. August 12-15 were in fact Tuesday to Friday. He corrects himself on the 16th.

  • [108] Unidentified. Not Thomas Hodkinson, seemingly, as they don't appear to meet up until the next day.

  • [109] Sic.

  • [100] Aside from the suggestion of a connection to Sarah Ann's family, Uncle Sam and Aunt Blakey remain unidentified.

  • [111] Other than an association with Sarah Ann's step-mother's family, Frank and his folks remain unidentified. It would not seem likely that Frank is a son of Uncle Henry Nichols, as Charles elsewhere refers to Henry more directly as simply “Mr. Nichols” (cf. Aug. 11).

  • [112] See the July 23 footnote on the Old Abbie.

  • [113] “We” here must mean Charles and Thomas Hodkinson. Though Thomas had arrived in Leeds on the 13th, he seems to have stayed with the Binks. This may be his and Mary Ann's first meeting.

  • [114] Originally given in the 11th century by William the Conqueror to the De Lacey family of Pontefract Castle, the tract of land now known as Roundhay Park passed over the centuries through a succession of famous hands, including those of John of Gaunt, Henries IV and VIII and Thomas Darcy. In 1872 it was purchased by the Leeds city council and donated to the people of Leeds as a public park. The land at the time lay far outside the borders of Leeds and could only be reached by the old “turnpike” road of 1808. While the park was eventually extensively re-landscaped, Charles, visiting in 1873, would not have seen the improvements. At more than 700 acres, Roundhay park is still today one of the largest city parks in Europe.

  • [115] Niece, not sister. Again, not “our”, and she's with John and Ada.

  • [116] Wesleyan Methodist Oxford Place Chapel, located on Oxford Place across from the Leeds Town Hall in downtown Leeds. The property having been purchased by the Methodist Church in 1834, the foundation stone was laid in Feb '35 and the Chapel was officially opened in October. The building stood largely as is until an 1896 redesign and expansion gave it its current Baroque facade.

  • [117] Aka “Agape Feast”, the Love Feast is a simple, traditional Methodist ritual meal which includes the singing of hymns, Scripture reading, and the sharing of faith stories.

  • [118] That is, Birstall Feast, or Birstalltide. See the footnote for August 21.

  • [119] John Day married Frances “Fanny” Blakey. While the exact connection remains uncertain, Fanny's maiden name and the fact that Charles calls Fanny “Aunt” would seem to make her a sister to Sarah Ann's father.

  • [110] Fanny passed away in 1862, at age fifty-eight, and was interred in Birstall Cemetery.

  • [121] Celebrated annually on August 19, Birstalltide, or Birstall Feast, was a local Birstall tradition. It has long been believed by scholars that Charlotte Bronte drew on her experiences at Birstall Feast in the 1830s to describe the Whitsuntide celebrations in chapters 17 and 18 of her novel Shirley. Herbert E. Woot, in his Persons and Places of the Bronte Novels, quotes from the journal of the Rev. Henry Nussey – the “St. John Rivers” of Jane Eyre – in which he describes the events of Birstall feast as a “time of much iniquity”. Festivities included the Church Sunday School Festival, at which young scholars were feted, hymns were sung, and prayers read by the Vicar. In the evening at eight o'clock “supper was introduced, consisting of the Old English cheer, roast beef, plum-pudding and good beer, to which from 80 to 100 sat down. The day then concluded with music and singing.”

  • [122] Joshua Rhodes was a major land owner in the Arena, Wisconsin area in 1873.

  • [123] John Day was a tailor by profession.

  • [124] James and Samuel, brothers, were sons of Uncle John. They would be about 51 and 41 years old at this time, respectively; Uncle Day about 72.

  • [125] Charles' sister Mary married William Bagot in 1829 and had at least five children. Here we meet son John William and daughter Elizabeth's husband William Waite. We will meet daughter Lovenia on August 29th.

  • [126] See footnote for July 22nd on the Farrars.

  • [127] The Copleys are the family of Thomas Hodkinson's recently deceased wife, Sarah Ann Copley.

  • [128] The Hills are unidentified, unless they are the family of “Mr Copley's sister”.

  • [129] First opened in 1779, Piece Hall in Halifax was one of many “cloth halls” throughout the area -- central marketplaces where cottage industry textile producers marketed their products. It is today the last remaining cloth hall in England, and now houses dozens of art, craft and antique stores.

  • [120] Built in 1819, Sion Chapel was an independent (i.e., neither Anglican nor Catholic) church in the Halifax parish.

  • [131] After the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada in 1588, a system of warning beacons was set up across England on prominent heights. The crown of Beacon Hill in Halifax stands 864 feet above sea-level, and would be a daunting climb even for a man much younger than Charles’ 53 years.

  • [132] Lovenia Bagot, daughter of Charles’ sister Mary, married Henry Cumpsty in Halifax in 1868.

  • [133] That is, Lightcliffe, about 1.5 km north of Brighouse.

  • [134] “wh” [sic].

  • [135] Castleford, located southeast of Leeds, was home to a major glass works factory in 1873. Charles’ nephew John William, son of John and Miriam (Mason) Sutcliffe, was an engineer there, and commuted by train from his father’s home in the Richmond Hills district of downtown Leeds.

  • [136] Nephew John William Sutcliffe, son of John (and half-brother to Mary Ann), not to be confused with nephew John William Bagot, son of Mary, whom we met on August 25th.

  • [137] The Church of St. Barnabas at Horton cum-Studley, dedicated in June of 1868, had been built on the ruins of a pre-Norman church established by Birinus in the wake of the success of Augustine in re-Christianizing Saxon England. Like its precursor, the Church of St. Barnabas was dedicated to the Holy Virgin, and Horton Feast was held each year around the end of August, that is, on the most convenient date nearest to the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary according to the Julian calendar.

  • [138] Sic. A small corner of the page is missing, and at least one word with it.

  • [139] Jane Coldwell Sutcliffe (¶29) indicates they returned to Wisconsin on 18 October.